Apogastrostyla rigescens (Kahl, 1932) gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha): Morphology, Notes on Cell Division, SSU rRNA Gene Sequence Data, and Neotypification

Liqiong Li,

Jie Huang,

Weibo Song,

Mann Kyoon Shin,

Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid,

Helmut Berger


The morphology, the infraciliature, some stages of cell division and physiological reorganization, and the SSU rRNA gene sequence of the little-known marine 18-cirri hypotrich Tachysoma rigescens (Kahl, 1932) Borror, 1972 [basionym Oxytricha (Tachysoma) rigescens], isolated from mariculture waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated. This rare species is characterized, inter alia, by narrowly spaced, small, colourless cortical granules and several conspicuous ring-shaped structures in the cytoplasm. The caudal cirri and the simple dorsal kinety pattern (three bipolar kineties) are probably plesiomorphic traits within the Hypotricha, the composition of the adoral zone of the proter from new and parental membranelles, as well as the presence of two ‘extra’ cirri behind the right marginal row strongly suggest a misclassification in Tachysoma. The SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that T. rigescens branches off rather basally in the Hypotricha tree, which supports the hypothesis that the 18-cirri pattern occurred very early, probably already in the last common ancestor of the Hypotricha. A detailed survey of the early branching 18-cirri hypotrichs and similar taxa (e.g. Trachelostyla pediculiformis, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica, Protogastrostyla pulchra) reveals that for T. rigescens a new genus (Apogastrostyla gen. nov.) has to be established, because there are important differences, inter alia, in the dorsal infraciliature. Besides the type species, A. rigescens comb. nov., which seems to be confined to the northern hemisphere according to the sparse faunistic data, a second marine species, A. szaboi comb. nov. (basionym Hemigastrostyla szaboi), so far only twice recorded from the Antarctic region, can be included. The Chinese population is fixed as neotype to define the species objectively, because no type material of A. rigescens is present and the original type locality is not known. The species name Tachysoma multinucleate is emended: Tachysoma multinucleatum nom. corr.

Słowa kluczowe: China, ecology, Hemigastrostyla, infraciliature, ontogenesis, Spirotricha, Stichotrichia, Yellow Sea

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