Coccolithophorids in Polar Waters: Trigonaspis spp. Revisited

Helge Abildhauge Thomsen,

Jette Buch Østergaard

A group of weakly calcified coccolithophorid genera and species were described from polar regions several decades ago. In the interim period a few additional findings have been reported adding to the morphological and biogeographical databases of some of the species. The holococcolithophorid genus Trigonaspis is revisited here with the purpose of providing, based on additional sampling from both polar regions, an update on species morphology, life history aspects and biogeography. The genus Trigonaspis as currently circumscribed comprises four taxa – two from each polar region. The triangular plates of crystallites that cover the surfaces of both the tower-shaped flagellar pole coccoliths and the disc-shaped body coccoliths are the keystone features of the genus. Circumstantial evidence exists linking species of Trigonaspis with species of Pappomonas in haploid-diploid life cycles.
Słowa kluczowe: Coccolithophorid, holococcolith, Trigonaspis, polar regions, electron microscopy

Baurain D., Brinkmann H., Petersen J., Rodríguez-Ezpeleta N., Stechmann A., Demoulin V., Roger A. J., Burger G., Lang B. F., Philippe H. (2010) Phylogenetic evidence for separate acquisition of plastids in cryptophytes, haptophytes and stramenopiles. Mol. Biol. Evol27: 1698–1709

Christensen T., Koch C., Thomsen H. A. (1985) Distribution of algae in Danish salt and brackish waters. Checkliste. Københavns Universitet, 64 pp

Clausen S., Gedde D., Grastrup-Hansen D., Levinsen H., Riis T., Vestergaard O. (1994) Hydrografi og plankton i Diskobugt. In: Arktisk Biologisk Feltkursus, Qeqertarqsuaq/Godhavn 1994 (Ed. C. Ehrhardt). Univ. Copenhagen, 83–190

Espeland G., Throndsen J. (1986) Flagellates from Kilsfjorden, southern Norway, with description of two new species of choanoflagellida. Sarsia 71: 209–226

Findlay C. S., Giraudeau J. (2000) Extant calcareous nannoplankton in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean (austral summers 1994 and 1995). Mar. Micropaleontol. 40: 417–439

Hansen L. E., Nielsen D., Skovgaard K., Østergaard J. B. (1988) Taxonomiske og kvantitative undersøgelser af de nanoplanktoniske grupper krave- og kalkflagellater i de frie vandmasser ved Disko, Grønland. In: Feltkursus Arktisk Biologi 1988 (Ed. M. Jørgensen). Univ. Copenhagen, 51–142

Houdan A., Probert I., Zatylny C., Véron B., Billard C. (2006) Ecology of oceanic coccolithophores. I. Nutritional p of the two stages in the life cycle of Coccolithus braarudii and Calcidiscus leptoporusAquat. Microb. Ecol. 44: 291–301

Ikävalko J. (1998) Further observations on flagellates within sea ice in northern Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea. Polar Biol19: 323–329

Ikävalko J., Thomsen H. A. (1997) The Baltic sea ice biota (March 1994): A study of the protistan community. Europ. J. Protozool33: 229–243

Klaveness D. (1973) The microanatomy of Calyptrosphaera sphaeroidea, with some supplementary observations on the motile stage of Coccolithus pelagicus. Norw. J. Bot. 20: 151–162

Liu H., Aris-Brosou S., Probert I., de Vargas C. (2010) A time line of the environmental genetics of the haptophytes. Mol. Biol. Evol27: 161–176

Manton I., Oates K. (1975) Fine-structural observations on Papposphaera Tangen from the southern hemisphere and on Pappomonas gen. nov. from South Africa and Greenland. Br. Phycol. J. 10: 93–109

Manton I., Sutherland J. (1975) Further observations of the genus Pappomonas Manton et Oates with special reference to P. virgulosa sp. nov. from West Greenland. Br. Phycol. J. 10: 377–385

Manton I., Sutherland J., McCully M. (1976a) Fine structural observations on coccolithophorids from South Alaska in the genera Papposphaera Tangen and Pappomonas Manton et Oates. Br. Phycol. J. 11: 225–238

Manton I., Sutherland J., Oates K. (1976b) Arctic coccolithophorids: two species of Turrisphaera gen. nov. from West Greenland, Alaska and the Northwest Passage. Proc. Royal Soc. London, Ser. B. Biol. Sci. 194: 179–194

Manton I., Sutherland J., Oates K. (1977) Arctic coccolithophorids: Wigwamma arctica gen. et sp. nov. from Greenland and arctic Canada, W. annulifera sp. nov. form South Africa and S. Alaska. Proc. Royal Soc. London, Ser. B. Biol. Sci. 197: 145–168

Østergaard J. B. (1993) Nanoplanktoniske coccolithophorer (Prymnesiophyceae) og nanoplanktoniske, loricabærende choanoflagellater (Acanthoecidae) i farvandet omkring Godhavn, Grønland. Masters thesis, Univ. Copenhagen

Parke M., Adams I. (1960) The motile (Crystallolithus hyalinus Gaarder et Markali) and the non-motile phases in the life history of Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K39: 263–274

Thomsen H. A. (1979) Electron microscopical observations on brackish water nannoplankton from the Tvärminne area, SW coast of Finland. Acta Bot. Fennica 110: 11–37

Thomsen H. A. (1980a) Two species of Trigonaspis gen. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland. Phycologia 19: 218–299

Thomsen H. A. (1980b) Turrisphaera polybotrys sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 60: 529–537

Thomsen H. A. (1980c) Wigwamma scenozonion sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland. Br. Phycol. J. 15: 335–342

Thomsen H. A. (1980d) Quaternariella obscura gen. et sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland. Phycologia 19: 260–265

Thomsen H. A. (1981) Identification by electron microscopy of nanoplanktonic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland, including the description of Papposphaera sarion sp. nov. Br. phycol. J. 16: 77–94

Thomsen H. A., Buck K. R. (1998) Nanoflagellates of East Pacific coastal waters: Morphology, taxonomy, and biogeography of weakly calcified coccolithophores (Haptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algol19: 29–48

Thomsen H. A., Buck K. R., Coale S. L., Garrison D. L., Gowing M. M. (1988) Nanoplanktonic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyceae) from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Nord. J. Bot. 8: 419–436

Thomsen H. A., Østergaard J. B., Hansen L. E. (1991) Heteromorphic life histories in Arctic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae). J. Phycol27: 634–642

Thomsen H. A., Østergaard J. B., Heldal M. (2013). Coccolithophorids in polar waters: Wigwamma spp. revisited. Acta Protozool. 52: 237–256

Thomsen H. A., Østergaard J. B. (2014a) Cocolithophorids in polar waters: Calciarcus spp. revisited. Acta Protozool53: 145–157

Thomsen H. A., Østergaard J. B. (2014b) Cocolithophorids in polar waters: Pappomonas spp. revisited. Acta Protozool53: 233–254

Vørs N. (1992) Heterotrophic amoebae, flagellates and heliozoa from the Tvärminne area, Gulf of Finland in 1988–1990. Ophelia 36: 1–109

Czasopismo w darmowym dostępie.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.