A New Amoeba with Protosteloid Fruiting: Luapeleamoeba hula n. g. n. sp. (Acanthamoebidae, Centramoebida, Amoebozoa)

Lora L. Shadwick,

Matthew W. Brown,

Alexander K. Tice,

Frederick W. Spiegel

Abstrakt

We describe a new protosteloid amoeba, Luapeleamoeba hula. Protosteloid amoebae, sometimes called protostelids, are sporocarpic amoebae that make fruiting bodies that consist of a stalk and one to a few spores. This new taxon was cultured from dead leaves of mamaki (Pipturus albidus) from the Manuka Natural Area Reserve, Hawai`i, USA. Light microscopic examination showed that this amoeba has a short, rigid stalk with a small apophysis and a spore that changes shape continuously until it is shed and crawls away from the stalk. In addition, this amoeba was initially observed to maintain a diurnal rhythm in which fruiting body formation occurred primarily in the late afternoon. This new species is unique in both its amoebal and fruiting body morphology. Spore deciduousness appears to be a result of shape changes in the spore itself. This is the fourth species of protosteloid amoeba described with a clearly described diurnal rhythm. In addition, previous molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that this new species has SSU rRNA gene sequences that clearly separate it from any other protosteloid amoebae and place it as sister to Protacanthamoeba bohemica among the Acanthamoebidae family in Centramoebida of Amoebozoa. Because this new species’ amoebae do not fit into any of the centramoebid genera, we have proposed a new genus—Luapeleamoeba.

Supplemmental video:

Supplemental Video. SV1. Lh_SV1.mp4. Luapeleamoeba hula amoebae crawling on an agar surface. Spores move continuously on top of their stalks. One spore jerks suddenly, then crawls off as an amoeba with its stalk trailing behind. An amoeba begins to make a prespore cell on the top right corner. Images were taken every 5 seconds. This video is compiled at 30 images per second. Magnification at 10 × on a Zeiss AxioVert 135 equipped with a Canon T1i camera.


Supplemental Video. SV2. Lh_SV2.mp4. Luapeleamoeba hula amoebae crawl over an agar surface. The spores on top of three fruiting bodies move around constantly until they each germinate as amoebae. Images were taken every 30 seconds. This video is compiled at 30 images per second. Magnification at 10 × on a Zeiss AxioSkop 2 Plus equipped with a Canon 5DS camera.


Supplemental Video. SV3. Lh_SV3.mp4. Real-time video of floating forms of Luapeleamoeba hula. Floating forms are round with margins that are not rough and irregular. They sometimes have a conspicuous contractile vacuole. A drop of liquid WMY with amoeboid cells were deposited on a glass slide and a coverslip was added. Immediately the slide was viewed and videoed to show that rapid transition from floating to adhered. The video starts with a 20 × objective and then the objective was switched to 40 ×. The three cells are videoed at the end of the video are the same cells that are depicted in Figs S1 and S2. Magnification at 20 × and 40 × on a Zeiss AxioSkop 2 Plus equipped with a Canon 5DS camera.

Słowa kluczowe: free-living amoeba, protostelid, centramoebid, acanthamoebid, stalk, taxonomy, terrestrial, Hawaii
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