Peculiarities of Trypanosoma rangeli KP1(-) Strains Isolated from the Wild Rodent Phyllomys dasythrix (Santa Catarina, Brazil): Comparisons with T. rangeli KP1(+) strains and Trypanosoma lewisi (Kinetoplastea,  Trypanosomatidae)

Maria A. Sousa,

Barbara N. Santos,

Cristina Carvalhal,

Mario Steindel

Two KP1(–) strains of Trypanosoma rangeli (SC-58, SC-61) isolated from the wild rodent Phyllomys dasythrix from Santa Catarina (Brazil) were compared with some KP1(+) reference stocks from different Latin America countries, and also with Trypanosoma lewisi. The strains were analyzed by some morphological and biological features, and by biochemical and molecular techniques. The mean total length (TL) of the bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. rangeli varied between 31.3–33.0 µm, and those of T. lewisi (adult forms) was 28.2 µm, values within the variation known for each species. In T. rangeli KP1(+) and T. lewisi, the nucleus was located in the anterior portion of the body, with nuclear indexes (NI) ≥ 1.2, as typically described for both species. Differently, most trypomastigotes of the KP1(–) stocks presented NI ≤ 1.0. Another striking feature of the KP1(–) strains was their very fastidiously growth in axenic cultures when compared with the KP1(+) stocks and T. lewisi. Three isoenzyme loci (MDH, IDH and PGM) clearly distinguished T. rangeli and T. lewisi, and the distinction between the KP1(+) and KP1(–) strains was possible at MDH, PGM and GPI loci. All T. rangeli strains presented the typical 760 bp amplicon derived from their KP2 minicircles. However, the KP3 products of the KP1(+) strains were a single large band (~330bp), whereas those of the KP1(–) had two distinct bands (350 and 300 bp). T. lewisi presented 700 and 400 bp amplicons, as previously reported. The peculiarities of T. rangeli isolates from P. dasythrix corroborate a possible speciation process within this taxon.
Słowa kluczowe: KP1(+) and KP1(–) Trypanosoma rangeli strains, Trypanosoma lewisi, morphology, biology, isoenzymes, PCR products

Añez N. (1983) Studies on Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. VI. Developmental pattern in the haemolymph of Rhodinus prolixusMem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 78: 413–419

Barreto-Santana D., Santos-Schuernker L., Fonseca A. R., Gurgel-Gonçalves R., Cuba-Cuba C. A. (2015) Susceptibility of different Rhodnius species (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) to a Brazilian strain of Trypanosoma rangeli (SC58/KP1). Biomédica 35: 81–89

D’Alessandro A. (1976) Biology of Trypanosoma (Herpetosomarangeli, Tejera, 1920. In: Biology of the Kinetoplastida, vol. I, (Eds. W. H. R. Lumsden, D. A. Evans). Academic Press, New York, 327–403

D’Alessandro-Bacigalupo A., Saravia N. G. (1992) Trypanosoma rangeliIn: Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed., vol. 2, (Eds. J. P. Kreier, J. R. Baker). Academic Press, San Diego, 1–54

Deane L. M., Damasceno R. G. (1961) Tripanosomídeos de mamíferos da região amazônica. II. Tripanosomas de macacos da Zona do Salgado, Estado do Pará. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 361–70

Dias E., Freitas L. (1943) Introdução ao estudo biométrico dos hemoflagelados do gênero Schizotrypanum. I. Introdução, material e técnica, problema e métodos estatísticos. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 38: 427–436

Grisard E. C., Campbell D. A., Romanha A. J. (1999a) Mini-exon gene sequence polymorphism among Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from distinct geographical regions. Parasitology 118: 375–382

Grisard E. C., Steindel M., Guarneri A. A., Eger-Mangrich I., Campbell D. A., Romanha A. J. (1999b) Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated in Central and South America: an overview. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 94: 203–209

Groot H., Renjifo S., Uribe C. (1951) Trypanosoma ariarii, n. sp., from man, found in Colombia. Am. J. Trop. Med. 31: 673–691

Guhl F., Vallejo G. A. (2003) Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tereja, 1920 – an updated review. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 98: 435–442

Hamilton P. B., Gibson W. C., Stevens J. R. (2007) Patterns of co-evolution between trypanosomes and their hosts deduced from ribosomal RNA and protein-coding gene phylogenies. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 44: 15–25

Hoare C. A. (1972) The Trypanosomes of Mammals. A Zoological Monograph. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 749 pp.

Holguín A. F., Saravia N. G., D’Alessandro A. (1987) Lack of enzyme polymorphism in Trypanosoma rangeli stocks from sylvatic and domiciliary transmission cycles in Colombia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 36: 53–58

Johnson P. D. (1933) A case of infection by Trypanosoma lewisi in a child. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26: 467–468

Kreutzer R. D., Sousa O. E. (1981) Biochemical characterization of Trypanosoma spp. by isozyme electrophoresis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30: 308–317

Macedo A. M., Vallejo G. A., Chiari E., Pena D. J. (1993) DNA fingerprinting reveals relationships between strains of Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi. In: DNA Fingerprinting: State of Science, (Eds. S. D. J. Pena, R. Chakraborty, J. T. Epplan, A. J. Jeffreys). Birkhäuser-Verlag Basel, 321–329

Machado P. E., Eger-Mangrich I., Rosa G., Koerich L. B., Grisard E. C., Steindel M. (2001) Differential suceptibility of triatomines of the genus Rhodnius to Trypanosoma rangeli strains from different geographical origins. Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 632–634

Maia-da-Silva F., Junqueira A. C. V., Campaner M., Rodrigues A. C., Crisante G., Ramirez L. E., Caballero Z. C. E., Monteiro F. E., Coura J. R., Añez N., Teixeira M. M. G. (2007) Comparative phylogeography of Trypanosoma rangeli and Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) supports a long coexistence of parasite lineages and their sympatric vectors. Mol. Ecol. 16: 3361–3373

Maia-da-Silva F., Marcili A., Lima L., Cavazzana M. Jr., Ortiz P. A., Campaner M., Takeda G. F., Paiva F., Nunes V. L. B., Camargo E. P., Teixeira M. M. G. (2009) Trypanosoma rangeli isolates of bats from Central Brazil: genotyping and phylogenetic analysis enable description of a new lineage using spliced-leader gene sequences. Acta Trop. 109: 119–207

Maia-da-Silva F., Marcili A., Ortiz P. A., Epiphanio S., Campaner M., Catão-Dias J. L., Shaw J. J., Camargo E. P., Teixeira M. M. G. (2010) Phylogenetic, morphological and behavioural analyses support host switching of Trypanosoma (Herpetosomalewisi from domestic rats to primates. Infect. Genet. Evol. 10: 522–529

Miles M. A., Arias J. R., Valente S. A. S., Naiff R. D., Souza A. A., Povoa M. M., Lima J. A. N., Cedillos R. A. (1983) Vertebrate hosts and vectors of Trypanosoma rangeli in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg32: 1251–1259

Molyneux D. H. (1976) Biology of trypanosomes of the subgenus Herpetosoma. In: Biology of the Kinetoplastida, vol. 1, (Eds. W. H. R. Lumsden, D. A. Evans). Academic Press, New York, 285–325

Ocaña-Mayorga S., Aguirre-Villacis F., Pinto C. M., Vallejo G. A., Grijalva M. J. (2015) Prevalence, genetic characterization, and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in triatomine and mammal hosts in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Ecuador. Vector-Borne Zoon. Dis. 15(12): 732–742

Pifano F. (1949) Estado actual de las investigationes en Venezuela sobre una nueva trypanosomiasis humana de la region neotropica producida por el Trypanosoma rangeli. Arch. Venezol. Patol. Trop. Parasit. Med. 1135–152

Salazar-Antón F., Urrea D. A., Guhl F., Arévalo C., Azofeifa G., Urbina A., Blandón-Naranjo M., Sousa O. E., Zeledón R., Vallejo G. A. (2009) Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America. Infect. Genet. Evol. 91306–1310

Sincero T. C. M., Stoco P. H., Steindel M., Vallejo G. A., Grisard E. C. (2015) Trypanosoma rangeli displays a clonal population structure, revealing a subdivision of KP1() strains and the ancestry of the Amazonian group. Int. J. Parasitol. 45: 225–235

Sousa M. A., Fonseca T. S., Santos B. N., Santos-Pereira S. M., Carvalhal C., Hasslocher-Moreno A. M. (2008) Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 in chronic Chagas’ disease patients under ambulatory care at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC-Fiocruz, Brazil). Parasitol. Res103: 697–703

Sousa M. A. (1999) Morphobiological characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 and its distinction from other trypanosomes. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 94 (Suppl I): 205–210

Sousa M. A. (2014) On opportunist infections by Trypanosoma lewisi in humans and its differential diagnosis from T. cruzi and T. rangeliParasitol. Res. 113: 4471–4475

Steindel M., Pinto C. J. C., Toma H. K., Mangia R. H. R., Rodrigues R. R., Romanha A. J. (1991) Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920) isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix) in Santa Catarina Island, Santa Catarina State: first report of this trypanosome in southern Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 86: 73–79

Steindel M., Dias-Neto E., Pinto C. J. C., Grisard E. C., Menezes C. L. P., Murta S. M. F., Simpson A. J. G., Romanha A. J. (1994) Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isoenzyme analysis of Trypanosoma rangeli strains. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 41: 261–267

Suárez Q. Y., Carranza J. C., Clavijo J. A., Vallejo G. A. (2008) Pleomorfismos en cepas de Trypanosoma rangeli aisladas de Rhodnius colombiensis y R. pallescensRev. Tumbaga 3: 63–80

Urrea D. A., Carranza J. C., Cuba-Cuba C. A., Gurgel-Gonçalves R., Guhl F., Schofield C. J., Triana O., Vallejo G. A. (2005) Molecular characterisation of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Peru, R. colombiensis in Colombia and R. pallescens in Panama, supports a co-evolutionary association between parasites and vectors. Infect. Genet. Evol.: 5: 123–129

Urrea D. A., Guhl F., Herrera C. P., Falla A., Carranza J. C., Cuba-Cuba C., Triana-Chávez O., Grisard E. C., Vallejo G. A. (2011) Sequence analysis of the spliced-leader intergenic region (SL-IR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from Rhodnius ecuadoriensisR. colombiensisR. pallescens and R. prolixus suggests a degree of co-evolution between parasites and vectors. Acta Trop. 120: 59–66

Vallejo G. A., Guhl F., Carranza J. C., Lozano L. E, Sánchez J. L., Jaramillo J. C., Gualtero D., Castañeda N., Silva J. C., Steindel M. (2002). KDNA markers define two major Trypanosoma rangeli lineages in Latin-America. Acta Trop. 81: 77–82

Vallejo G. A., Guhl F., Carranza J. C., Moreno J., Triana O., Grisard E. C. (2003) Parity between kinetoplast DNA and mini-exon gene sequences supports either clonal evolution or speciation in Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensisR. pallescens and R. prolixus in Colombia. Infect. Genet. Evol. 3: 39–45

Vallejo G. A., Suárez Y., Olaya J. L., Gutiérrez S. A., Carranza J. C. (2015) Trypanosoma rangeli: un protozoo infectivo y no patógeno para el humano que contribuye al entendimiento de la transmisión vectorial y la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi, agente causal de la enfermedad de Chagas. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Ex. Fis. Nat. 39(150): 111–122

Ziccardi M., Oliveira R. L. (1998) Morphological features of trypanosomes from squirrel monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 93: 45–55

Czasopismo w darmowym dostępie.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.