Redescription of Dexiotricha colpidiopsis (Kahl, 1926) Jankowski, 1964 (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) from a Hot Spring in Iceland with Identification Key for Dexiotricha species

Zhishuai Qu,

René Groben,

Viggó Marteinsson,

Sabine Agatha,

Sabine Filker,

Thorsten Stoeck


We isolated an encysted ciliate from a geothermal field in Iceland. The morphological features of this isolate fit the descriptions of Dexiotricha colpidiopsis (Kahl, 1926) Jankowski, 1964 very well. These comprise body shape and size in vivo, the number of somatic kineties, and the positions of macronucleus and contractile vacuole. Using state-of-the-art taxonomic methods, the species is redescribed, including phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene as molecular marker. In the phylogenetic analyses, D. colpidiopsis clusters with the three available SSU rRNA gene sequences of congeners, suggesting a monophyly of the genus Dexiotricha. Its closest relative in phylogenetic analyses is D. elliptica, which also shows a high morphological similarity. This is the first record of a Dexiotricha species from a hot spring, indicating a wide temperature tolerance of this species at least in the encysted state. The new findings on D. colpidiopsis are included in a briefly revision of the scuticociliate genus Dexiotricha and an identification key to the species. 

Słowa kluczowe: Dexiotricha, hot spring, morphology, phylogeny, SSU rRNA gene

Agatha S., Wilbert N., Spindler M., Elbrächter M. (1990) Euplotide ciliates in sea ice of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Acta Protozool. 29: 221–228

Agatha S., Spindler M., Wilbert N. (1993) Ciliated protozoa (Ciliophora) from Arctic sea ice. Acta Protozool. 32: 261–268

Augustin V. H., Foissner W. (1992) Morphology and ecology of some ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from activated sludge. Arch. Protistenk. 141: 243–283

Baumgartner M., Stetter K. O., Foissner W. (2002) Morphological, small subunit rRNA and physiological characterization of Trimyema minutum (Kahl, 1931), an anaerobic ciliate from submarine hydrothermal vents growing from 28°C to 52°C. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.49: 227–238

Behrend K. (1916) Zur Conjugation von Loxocephalus. Arch. Protistenkd. 37: 1–5

Djokic T., Van Kranendonk M. J., Campbell K. A., Walter M. R., Ward C. R. (2017) Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits. Nat. Commun. 8: 15263

Dragesco J., Dragesco-Kernéis A. (1986) Ciliés libres de l’Afrique intertropicale: introduction à la connaissance et à l’étude des Ciliés. IRD Editions

Dombrowski H. (1961) Methoden und Ergebnisse der Balneobiologie. Therap. Gegenw. 100: 442–449

Fan X., Al-Farraj S. A., Gao F., Gu F. (2014) Morphological reports on two species of Dexiotricha (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with a note on the phylogenetic position of the genus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 64: 680–688

Fauré-Fremiet E. (1968) Les genres Dexiotricha Stokes et Loxocephalus Eberhard dans leurs relations auxomorphiques. Protistologica 4: 115–125

Filker S., Forster D., Weinisch L., Mora-Ruiz M., González B., Farías M., Rosselló-Móra R., Stoeck T. (2017) Transition boundaries for protistan species turnover in hypersaline waters of different biogeographic regions. Environ. Microbiol. 19: 3186–3200

Finlay B. J. (2002) Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species. Science 296: 1061–1063

Foissner W. (1987) Neue terrestrische und limnische Ciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora) aus Österreich und Deutschland. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 195: 217–268

Foissner W. (2012) Schmidingerothrix extraordinaria nov. gen., nov. spec., a secondarily oligomerized hypotrich (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Schmidingerotrichidae nov. fam.) from hypersaline soils of Africa. Eur. J. Protistol. 48: 237–251

Foissner W. (2014) An update of ‘basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 64: 271–292

Foissner W., Agatha S., Berger H. (2002) Soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa), with emphasis on two contrasting environments, the Etosha region and the Namib Desert. Part I: Text and line drawings. Part II: Photographs. Denisia 5: 1–1459

Foissner W., Berger H., Kohmann F. (1994) Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems – Band III: Hymenostomata, Prostomatida, Nassulida. Informationsber. Bayer. Landesamtes Wasserwirtsch. Heft 1/94: 1–548

Foissner W., Filker S., Stoeck T. (2014) Schmidingerothrix salinarum nov. spec. is the molecular sister of the large oxytrichid clade (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 61: 61–74

Gao F., Katz L. A., Song W. (2013) Multigene-based analyses on evolutionary phylogeny of two controversial ciliate orders: Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 8: 55–63

Gao F., Warren A., Zhang Q., Gong J., Miao M., Sun P., Song W. (2016) The all-data-based evolutionary hypothesis of ciliated protists with a revised classification of the phylum Ciliophora (Eukaryota, Alveolata). Sci. Rep. 6: 24874

Hu X. (2014) Ciliates in extreme environments. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 61: 410–418

ICZN [The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature]. (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth edition adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London

Jankowski A. W. (1964) Morphology and evolution of Ciliophora. IV. Sapropelebionts of the family Loxocephalidae fam. nova, their taxonomy and evolutionary history. Acta Protozool.2: 33–58

Jankowski A. W. (2007) Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. In: Alimov AF. (ed) Protista, Part 2. NAUKA, St. Petersburg, pp. 415–993

Kahl A. (1926) Neue und wenig bekannte Formen der holotrichen und heterotrichen Ciliaten. Arch. Protistenk. 55: 197–438

Kahl A. (1931) Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria). 2. Holotricha. Tierwelt Dtl. 21: 181–398

Kahan D. (1969) The fauna of hot springs. Verh. Int. Verein Limnol. 17: 811–816

Kahan D. (1972) Cyclidium citrullus Cohn, a ciliate from the hot springs of Tiberias (Israel). J. Protozool.19: 593–597

Kouris A., Juniper S. K., Frebourg G., Gaill F. (2007) Protozoan-bacterial symbiosis in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent folliculinid ciliate (Folliculinopsis sp.) from the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Mar. Ecol. 28: 63–71

Liu W., Jiang J., Xu Y., Pan X., Qu Z., Luo X., El-Serehy H. A., Warren A., Ma H., Pan, H. (2017) Diversity of free-living marine ciliates (Alveolata, Ciliophora): faunal studies in coastal waters of China during the years 2011–2016. Eur. J. Protistol. 61: 424–438

López-García P., Rodríguez-Valera F., Pedrós-Alió C., Moreira D. (2001) Unexpected diversity of small eukaryotes in deep-sea Antarctic plankton. Nature 409: 603–607

Madoni P., Ghetti P. F. (1981) The structure of ciliated protozoa communities in biological sewage-treatment plants. Hydrobiologia 83: 207–215

Miller M. A., Pfeiffer W., Schwartz T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Paper presented at the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, LA, USA, 14 November 2010, pp. 1–8

Noland L. E., Gojdics M. (1967) Ecology of free-living protozoa. In: Research in Protozoology, Chen T. T., Ed. (Oxford, Pergamon), vol. 2. chap. 4

Nylander J. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University

Oren A. (2002) Diversity of halophilic microorganisms: Environments, phylogeny, physiology, and applications. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28: 56–63

Pan X., Bourland W. A., Song W. (2013) Protargol synthesis: an in-house protocol. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 60: 609–614

Peck R. K. (1974) Morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudomicrothorax, Glaucoma and Dexiotricha with emphasis on the types of stomatogenesis in holotrichous ciliates. Protistologica 10: 333–370

Petz W., Song W., Wilbert N. (1995) Taxonomy and ecology of the ciliate fauna (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in the endopagial and pelagial of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Stapfia 40: 1–223

Posada D., Crandall K. A. (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14: 817–818

Roberts E. C., Priscu J. C., Wolf C., Lyons B., Laybourn-Parry J. (2004) The distribution of microplankton in the McMurdo Dry Valley Lakes, Antarctica: response to ecosystem legacy or present-day climatic control? Polar Biol. 27: 238–249

Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J. P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574

Stoeck T., Hayward B., Taylor G. T., Varela R., Epstein S. S. (2006) A multiple PCR-primer approach to access the microeukaryotic diversity in environmental samples. Protist 157: 31–43

Small E. B., Gross M. E. (1985) Preliminary observations of protistan organisms, especially ciliates from the 21°N hydrothermal vent site. Biol. Soc. Washington Bull. 6: 401–410

Song W., Warren A., Hu X. (2009) Free-living ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. 1st ed. Science Press, Beijing, p. 1–518

Stamatakis A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313

Stokes A. C. (1885) Notes on some apparently undescribed forms of fresh-water Infusoria. No. 2. Am. J. Sci. 29: 313–328

Taylor W. D., Berger J. (1980) Microspatial heterogeneity in the distribution of ciliates in a small pond. Microbial. Ecol. 6: 27–34

Uyemura M. (1936) Biological studies of thermal waters in Japan. IV. Ecol. St. 2: 171

Vuxanovici A. (1960) Noi contributii la studiul ciliatelor dulcicole din Republica Populara Romina (nota 1). Stud. Cercet. Biol. 12: 353–381

Warren A., Patterson D. J., Dunthorn M., Clamp J. C., Achilles-Day U. E. M., Aescht E., Al-Farraj S. A., Al-Quraishy S., Al-Rasheid K., Carr M., Day J. G., Dellinger M., El-Serehy H. A., Fan Y., Gao F., Gao S., Gong J., Gupta R., Hu X., Kamra K., Langlois G., Lin X., Lipscomb D., Lobban C. S., Luporini P., Lynn D. H., Ma H., Macek M., Mackenzie-Dodds J., Makhija S., Mansergh R. I., Martín-Cereceda M., McMiller N., Montagnes D. J. S., Nikolaeva S., Ong’ondo G. O., Pérez-Uz B., Purushothaman J., Quintela-Alonso P., Rotterová J., Santoferrara L., Shao C., Shen Z., Shi X., Song W., Stoeck T., LaTerza A., Vallesi A., Wang M., Weisse T., Wiackowski K., Wu L., Xu K., Yi Z., Zufall R., Agatha S. (2017) Beyond the “code”: a guide to the description and documentation of bio-diversity in ciliated protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora).J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 64: 539–554

Wilbert N. (1975) Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos 64: 171–179

Wilbert N. (1986) Ciliaten aus dem interstitial des Ontario Sees. Acta Protozool.25: 379–396

Xu Y., Shao C., Fan X., Warren A., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Song W., Wilbert N. (2016) New contributions to the biodiversity of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Antarctica, including a description of Gastronauta multistriata n. sp. Polar Biol. 39: 1439–1453

Czasopismo w darmowym dostępie.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.