Studies on Three Diverse Frontonia Species (Ciliophora, Peniculida), with Brief Notes on 14 Marine or Brackish Congeners

Xuming Pan,

Weiwei Liu,

Zhenzhen Yi,

Xinpeng Fan,

Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid,

Xiaofeng Lin


Living observation and silver impregnation methods were used to investigate the morphology and infraciliature of three Frontonia ciliates (F. guangdongensis spec. nov., F. ocularis Bullington, 1939 and F. schaefferi Bullington, 1939) that were isolated from coastal waters of the South China Sea. Frontonia guangdongensis spec. nov. may be recognized by the combination of the following characteristics: cells about 160 × 35 μm in vivo; elongated body with right margin depressed in anterior third; length to width ratio 4:1 to 5:1; three or four vestibular and four or five postoral kineties; peniculi 1 and 2 each with four rows of kineties, peniculus 3 with two rows; one contractile vacuole in mid-body region right of cell median; brackish water habitat. A key based on morphological data for fourteen marine or brackish water Frontonia species found in China is also provided. In addition, the small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene was sequenced for F. ocularis Bullington, 1939. Our phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Frontonia is not monophyletic.

Słowa kluczowe: Frontonia guangdongensis, Frontonia ocularis, Frontonia schaefferi, new species, South China Sea

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