« La terre entière fut remplie d'admiration et suivit la bête »: de crises et de fins

Jean-Pierre Thomas

Abstrakt

« And all the world wondered after the beast »: crisis and end in American Superhero Comic Books

Since, in American Superhero comic books, the planet Earth is constantly
threatened of being destroyed by villains, entities with superpowers –
Superman, Green Lantern or the X-Men – come to the rescue to prevent some
apocalypse from happening. Does that mean that the ending that Superheroes
go against is only a partial abolition and that death ends up being an unreal
threat ? The meaning of that eschatology probably does not lie here in a
straightforward retelling of founding stories, as the powers trying to get rid
of humanity don't do it to punish it of some fault, contrary to the common
example given by mythology. If the end of the world really is t h e recurring
motif in Superhero comic books, it remains to be seen to what extent it does
structure the medium.

Słowa kluczowe: comic books, superheroes, Apocalypse, prophecy
References

Bartalos M. K., Speaking of Death. America's New Sense of Mortality, Westport, Praeger Publishers, 2009.

Boia L., La fin du monde. Une histoire sans fin, Paris, La Découverte & Syros, 1999.

Chassay J.-F., Dérives de la fin, Montréal, Le Quartanier, 2008.

Coogan P., Superhero. The Secret Origin of a Genre, Austin, Monkey Brain Books, 2006.

De Falco T., The Amazing Spider-Man, New York, Marvel Comics, 1996, vol. 1, n° 415.

Dini P., Countdown, New York, DC Comics, 2007 n° 43.

Eliade M., Aspects du mythe, Paris, Éditions Gallimard, 1963.

Fontana A., Reid Keene J., Death and Dying in America, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2009.

Garrett G., Holy Superheroes ! Exploring the Sacred in Comics, Graphic Novels, and Film, Louisville, Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.

Gervais B., Logiques de l'imaginaire II. L'imaginaire de la fin, Montréal, Le Quartanier, 2009.

Johns G., Blackest Night, New York, DC Comics, 2009, n° 0. Blackest Night, New York, DC Comics, 2009, n° 1.; Green Lantern, New York, DC Comics, 2009, n° 38.; Green Lantern, New York, DC Comics, 2009, n° 46. Green Lantern, New York, DC Comics, 2010, n° 51. Green Lantern, New York, DC Comics, 2010, n° 52.

Kavadlo J., « X-Istential X-Men : Jews, Supermen, and the Literature of Struggle », [dans :] R. Housel et J. Jeremy Wisnewski (dir.), X-Men and Philosophy, Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.

Kermode F., The Sense of an Ending. Studies in the Theory of Fiction with a New Epilogue, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000. La Bible, Montréal, Société biblique canadienne, 1982.

Lifton R. J., « The Image of The End of the World. A Psychohistorical View »,[dans :] V. Andrews et al. (dir.), Facing Apocalypse, Dallas, Spring Publications, Inc., 1987.

Lobdell S., The Astonishing X-Men,New York, Marvel Comics, 1995, n° 2.

Loeb J., Cable, New York, Marvel Comics, 1996, n° 34. ― Captain America, New York, Marvel Comics, 1997, vol. 2, n° 12.

Marz R., Silver Surfer, New York, Marvel Comics, 1991, vol. 3, n° 51. ― Silver Surfer, New York, Marvel Comics, 1991, vol. 3, n° 54.

McKeever S., Teen Titans, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 59.

Miller D., « Chiliasm. Apocalyptic with a Thousand Faces », [dans :] Valerie Andrews et al. (dir.), Facing Apocalypse, Dallas, Spring Publications, Inc., 1987.

Moore A., Watchmen, New York, DC Comics, 1987.

Morrison G., Final Crisis : Submit, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 1. ― Final Crisis, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 3. ― Final Crisis, New York, DC Comics, 2009, n° 7.

Morrison G., Johns G., DC Universe, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 0.

O'Leary S. D., Arguing the Apocalypse. A Theory of Millennial Rhetoric, New York, Oxford University Press, 1994.

O'Neill T., « Who Rules Over Earth ? The Archetype of the World Ruler and the Work of Universal Regeneration », [dans :] A. Parfrey (dir.), Apocalypse Culture, [s. l.], Feral House, 1990.

Pak G., Van Lente F., Chaos War, New York, Marvel Comics, 2011, n° 4.

Parkinson Zamora L., Writing the Apocalypse. Historical Vision in Contemporary U.S. and Latin American Fiction, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Quilliot R., Qu'est-ce que la mort ?, Paris, Armand Colin/HER, 2000.

Reynolds R., Super Heroes. A Modern Mythology, Jackson, University Press of Mississippi, 1992.

Rice B., cité dans « Infernal Texts », [dans :] A. Parfrey (dir.), Apocalypse Culture, Feral House, 1990, [s.l.].

Robson D., « Frye, Derrida, Pynchon, and the Apocalyptic Space of Postmodern Fiction », [dans :] Richard Dellamora (dir.), Postmodern Apocalypse, Philadelphie, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Rosen E. K., Apocalyptic Transformation. Apocalypse and the Postmodern Imagination, Plymouth, Lexington Books, 2008.

Rucka G., Final Crisis : Resist, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 1.

Starlin J., The Infinity Gauntlet, New York, Marvel Comics, 1991, vol. 1, n° 2.

Tomasi P. J., Final Crisis : Requiem, New York, DC Comics, 2008, n° 1.

Wolfman M., Crisis on Infinite Earths, New York, DC Comics, 1985, n° 10.

Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.