Sixty parks in Manhattan – the network of social life

Rafał Kosiński


The idea of modern city parks was born in the USA, wherefrom was transferred to Europe and towards other continents. It was represented by the pioneer of landscape architecture F.L. Olmsted, author of the Central Park in Manhattan (in 1857, area 350 ha). After 156 years, Manhattan still sustains a position of the leading model for good creating contemporary city parks. The main motivation of it, is a quality of a city life. At first “green lung” of them, also their surfaces biologically active, realized an idea of hygienic and salubrious industrial city, then reducing results of pollution emitted by fuel both used for heating and for vehicles. Now, the leading idea is amelioration of stressful existence in super modern metropolis; this encourages towards plural and attractive creation of parks.

Słowa kluczowe: park, townscape, city, quality of life, creation