Access of higher education and study for Poles in the second half of 19th century

Kalina Bartnicka

Abstrakt

In the 19th century, in Poland divided among Russia, Austria and Prussia, the occupants hindered access to education for Poles. Fighting the restrictions, the Poles organized scientific institutions, published texts enabling self-study and founded high and academic private schools. In the Polish Kingdom in 19th century these schools were mostly clandestine, becoming legal at the beginning of 20th century. In Galicia, polonized high schools and universities in Lwów and Kraków educated students, including women, from all occupied territories. Many studied abroad. People educated in the second half of 19th century rebuilt the system of higher education in Poland Reborn.

Słowa kluczowe: partitions of Poland, Germanization, Russification, universities, secondary schools, underground education, women’s education, “Flying University”, The Manual for a Self-Learner, Society of Science Courses
References

Kalina Bartnicka, Institute of History of Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw

J. Skowronek, Nauka i nauczanie w okresie międzypowstaniowym (Science and Teaching Between the November and January Uprisings), [in:] Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 1807‒1915 (The History of the Warsaw University 1807‒1915), ed. by Stefan Kieniewicz, PWN, Warszawa 1981, p. 207.

R. Wroczyński, Dzieje oświaty polskiej (The History of the Polish education), vol. II, 1795‒1945, (ed. II) „Żak”, Warszawa 1996, p.100-107; see also Karol Poznański, Oświata i szkolnictwo w Królestwie Polskim (The Education and Schooling System of the Kingdom of Poland) 1831‒1869, vol. 1‒2, Warszawa 2001.

K. Bartnicka, „Jaki powinien być uniwersytet rosyjski?” – Sprawy uniwersyteckie w świetle ankiety Ministerstwa Oświecenia Narodowego w 1849 r. (“What Should a Russian University Be Like?” – University business in light of the National Education Ministry’s survey n 1849), [in:] Rozprawy z dziejów oświaty (Essays on History of Education), ed. by Józef Miąso, vol. XXXVII, Warszawa 1996, p. 91-117.

Ustawa z dnia 13 lipca 1920 roku o szkołach akademickich (Bill on Academic Schools of 13 July 1920), Official Journal of the Republic of Poland, 1920, No 72, item 494, publ. by Dorota Zamojska, Akademicy i urzędnicy. Kształtowanie ustroju państwowych szkół wyższych w Polsce 1915–1920 (Academics and clerks. The shaping of the system of state higher schools in Poland 1915‒1920), Warszawa 2009, p. 248-267.

J. Makarewicz, Społeczna rola najwyższych uczelni (The social role of higher education institutions), Lwów 1920, p. 3; cited by: D. Zamojska, op. cit., p. 15.

A. Wrzosek, Szkolnictwo wyższe. Uniwersytety (Higher education. Universities), [in:] Dziesięciolecie Polski Odrodzonej 1918‒1928 (The decade of a Reborn Poland 1918‒1928), Warszawa 1933, ed. II, p. 554, cited by D. Zamojska, op. cit., p. 16.

Similar views in response to Prussia’s debacle in the Napoleonic Wars led at the beginning of the 19th century to Prussia having its schools structure put in order by Wilhelm von Humboldt and creating the Berlin University in 1810.

The new university structure introduced division into two colleges in place of the traditional faculties: humanities, social studies and theology constituted the so-called Moral College, whereas mathematics, physics, natural history, and medicine constituted the Physics College; see Ustawy Kommissyi Edukacyi Narodowej dla stanu akademickiego i na szkoły w krajach Rzeczypospolitej przepisane (The National Educational Commission’s Acts on the Commonwealth’s academic class and on schools) (1783), publ. by S. Tync, op. cit., p. 589-593: Chapter 2 “Main Schools”, points 14-16.

M. Wawrykowa, Uniwersytet Warszawski w latach 1816-1831 (Warsaw University 1816‒1831), [in:]
Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 1897‒1915, op. cit., p. 109 and the following.

D. Beauvois, op. cit, p. 327; in the years 1822/1823 and 1825/1826 the Mathematical and Physics
Faculty was chosen by 305 and 316 students, respectively.

Karol Poznański, Reforma szkolna w Królestwie Polskim w 1862 r. (School Reform in the Kingdom of Poland in 1862), „Monografie z dziejów oświaty” (“Monographs on the History of Education”), ed. by Łukasz Kurdybacha, vol. X, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1968.

Ustawa o wychowaniu publicznym w Królestwie Polskim ( The Act on Public Education in the Kingdom of Poland), 1862, Section Two: O zakładach naukowych średnich (On Secondary Scientific Facilities), art. 56; publ. by Stefan Wołoszyn, Źródła do dziejów wychowania i myśli pedagogicznej (Sources for History of Education and Pedagogical Thought), vol. II, Pedagogika i szkolnictwo w XIX stuleciu (Pedagogy and Schooling System in the 19th century), ed. II, altered, „Strzelec”, Kielce 1997, p. 482.

Students who failed the exam and graduates of real gimnazjums’ 6th grade (which did not grant them admission into university) could attend a preparatory class that would enable them to complement their education in Polish, Greek,, Latin, algebra, and geometry.

K. Poznański, op. cit., p. 207-236: Chapter VII. Realizacja Ustawy o wychowaniu publicznym w Królestwie Polskim na polu szkolnictwa wyższego (Implementation of the Act on public education in the Kingdom of Poland in the field of higher education).

S. Kieniewicz, Akademia Medyko-Chirurgiczna i Szkoła Główna (1857‒1869) (The Medical-Surgical Academy and Warsaw Main School 1857-1869), [in:] Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, op. cit., p. 306.

Historia Nauki Polskiej (History of Polish Science), ed. by Bogdan Suchodolski, vol. IV. 1853‒1918, edited by Zofia Skubała-Tokarska, Wrocław 1987, p. 381-385; this important but little known problem is discussed by Jerzy Róziewicz, Polsko-rosyjskie powiązania naukowe (1725‒1918) (Polish-Russian scientific links), Wrocław 1984.

In discussions questions were asked: “what can a country gain on losing its only scientific institution which was supposed to restore Poland’s bygone intellectual glamour and finesse to its future generations”, cit. by K. Poznański, op. cit., p. 225.

S. Kieniewicz, Akademia Medyko-Chirurgiczna i Szkoła Główna (1857‒1869) (The Medical-Surgical Academy and Warsaw Main School 1857-1869), [in:] Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiegoop. cit., p. 318-319.

M. Szymański, Higiena i wychowanie fizyczne w szkolnictwie ogólnokształcącym Królestwie Polskim 1815‒1915 (Hygiene and physical education in the Kingdom of Poland’s general education schools 1815‒1915), Wrocław 1979, p. 122. The curriculum was characterised by, according to K. Poznański, Reforma szkolna, op. cit., p. 317: “excess of classical subjects”. For 9 years including the preliminary grade, “Latin and Greek took up 85 hours weekly, whereas mathematical and naturalist subjects only took 37”.

M. Szymański, Higiena i wychowanie fizyczne w szkolnictwie ogólnokształcącym Królestwie Polskim 1815‒1915 (Hygiene and physical education in the Kingdom of Poland’s general education schools 1815‒1915), Wrocław 1979, p. 122. The curriculum was characterised by, according to K. Poznański, Reforma szkolna, op. cit., p. 123.

I. Ihnatowicz, Uniwersytet Warszawski w latach 1869‒1899 (Warsaw University 1869‒1899), [in:] Dzieje Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, op. cit., p. 419, 421.

J. Miąso, Szkoła Przygotowawcza do Instytutu Politechnicznego i późniejsze starania o kształcenie inżynierów w Królestwie Polskim ( Polytechnic Institute Preparatory School and subsequent efforts aimed at education of engineers in the Kingdom of Poland), [in:] 150 lat wyższego szkolnictwa technicznego w Warszawie 1826‒1976 (150 years of higher technical education in Warsaw 1826‒1976), Warszawa 1979, p. 31-44

J. Miąso, Tajne nauczanie w Królestwie Polskim w XIX i XX wieku (Underground teaching in the Kingdom of Poland in the 19th and 20th centuries), [in:] Wybrane prace z historii wychowania XIX‒XX w. (Selected works on history of education 19th‒20th centuries), „Żak”, Warszawa 1998, p. 101-116.

J. Miąso, Tajne nauczanie, ajne nauczanie w Królestwie Polskim w XIX i XX wieku (Underground teaching in the Kingdom of Poland in the 19th and 20th centuries), [in:] Wybrane prace z historii wychowania XIX‒XX w. (Selected works on history of education 19th‒20th centuries), „Żak”, Warszawa 1998, p. 106-107.