Chipped and ground stone implements from the Middle Neolithic site of Polgár 31 (North-East Hungary)

Małgorzata Kaczanowska,

Janusz K. Kozłowski,

Pál Sümegi

Abstrakt

The site of Polgár 31 (Ferenci-hát) is situated on the left bank of the Upper Tisza, within the so-called “Polgár Island”. The site consists of single features dated at the Alföld Linear Pottery Culture (ALP) I-III, while the majority of features belong to the youngest phase (ALP IV) attached to the Bükk Culture.

Our analysis focuses on both the chipped stone and the ground stone implements. The most important raw material used for the chipped stone industry of ALP IV phase was obsidian, followed by limno-hydroquartzites. Extra local raw materials played a minor role. Both in the case of obsidian as well as limnohydroquartzites on-site production was limited, while most artefacts were produced off-site. The structure of retouched tools shows that end-scrapers dominate slightly over marginally retouched blades.

The most commonly exploited raw material in the ground stone industry were various types of rhyolites deriving from the areas 40 to 50 km north of the site. Among tools predominate implements related to food preparation such as a variety of grinding stones, pestles, grinders etc. As part of rituals these tools were destroyed. Sometimes the fragments were used for crushing mineral dyes. Both: fragments of ground stone as well as chipped stone tools occur also in the graves.

Słowa kluczowe: Neolithic, ALP, Tisza Basin, Bükk Culture, obsidian, chipped stone, ground stone, traceology
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