Wizja zaświatów w folklorze i wierzeniach japońskich

Alicja Ozga

Abstrakt
VISION OF THE UNDERWORLD IN JAPANESE FOLKLORE AND BELIEFS

In ancient Japanese beliefs there was no specific concept of the underworld even though those beliefs were based on a cult of ancestors. The land of the dead, anoyo, had no specific location. It was not situated underground, nor in heaven – it was somewhere close to the world of the living, so that the spirits of the ancestors could watch over their relatives. More information about the Land of the Dead appears in the chronicles of Kojiki and Nihogi describing the death of the goddess Izanami and her departure to Yomi. A more extensive image of the underworld, especially a vision of hell with multiple levels, appeared on the Japanese Islands with the arrival of Buddhism. This article analyses different visions of the underworld that have developed in Japanese beliefs throughout history. Both Shintoist and Buddhist beliefs are discussed, as well as myths and legends about deities, demons and creatures related to death and the Land of the Dead.