Plamy słoneczne podczas Minimum Maundera

Radosław Rek

Abstrakt

Sunspots during the Maunder Minimum

The first sunspot had been observed with use of a telescope in 1610 by Thomas Harriot, in England. Observations later made by Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner allowed them to publish detailed reviews of the studies.
Very important place in the early history of solar investigations is occupied by Johan Hevelius with his catalogue and pictures of sunspot routes on the solar disc. His research had realized in the years 1642–1644 were the last before the so-called Maunder Minimum that started around 1645 and had lasted until 1715 or 1717 year. The hypothetical physical phenomenon propagated by Gustav Spörer at the end of the 19th century and the observations of sunspots that were discerned during this long minimum are discussed in detail.
This paper presents the history of these solar research and includes some analyses that allowed me to compare the level of solar activity during the second part of the 17th century with other periods. Some observations of sunspots, discerned in the years 1672–1713 and later by other scientists, who were interested in investigations of the heliolatitude changes of these phenomena in the past, were omitted by Spörer on his published list of spots. A large part of other descriptions was connected with an astrometric measurements and misinterpreted as the solar surface investigations. As a result, a false opinion about the level of solar activity during the Maunder Minimum became a natural explanation for the solar behaviour and different terrestrial phenomena as variability of the radiocarbon isotope abundance in tree-rings.
Additionally, this paper presents recently found archival descriptions of the solar spots and descriptions of large sunspots that were visible in the years of deep phase of Minimum, before the year 1700.
A development of the Minimum idea, with use of the auroral displays discerned in the second part of the 17th century and the first two decades of the next century, is also shortly discussed. The auroral cyclicity appears to confirm more typical course of the solar activity during these years.
 

Słowa kluczowe: Historia astronomii, minimum Maundera
References

E. Baiada, R. Merighi:The revival of solar activity after Maunder Minimum in reports and observations of E. Manfredi, „Solar Physics” t. 77: 1982 s. 357–362.

N. Bion: Des observations des Taches du Soleil [w:] L’usage des globes célestes et terrestres, et des sphéres suivant les différens systémes du monde, Paryż 1717.

R. Boyle: An Intimation of divers Philosophical particulars, now undertaken and consider’d by Several Ingenious and Learned men; here inserted to excite others to joyn with them in the same or the like Attempts and Observations, „Philosophical Transactions” t. 6: 1671 s. 2216–2217.

J. Heweliusz:Selenographia sive lunae descriptio, Gdańsk 1647.

J. Heweliusz: Machina coelestis, Gdańsk 1673, ks. I.

J. Heweliusz: Machina coelestis, Gdańsk 1679, ks. III.

G.D.Cassini:New Observations of Spots in the Sun; made at the Royal Academy of Paris, the 11, 12 and 13th of August 1671; and English’t out of the French, as follows, „Philosophical Transactions” t. 6: 1671 s. 2250–2253.

G.D.Cassini:The Observations of the SPOTS of the SUN, made at the Royal Academy at Paris, Continued; and English’t out of French, „Philosophical Transactions” t. 6: 1671 s. 3020–3024.

G.D. Cassini: Description du mouvement ou a fait une tache dans le Soleil sur la fin de Novembre dernier 1676, „Journal des sçavans“ 1676 s. 239–240, wyd. paryskie bez bieżącej numeracji tomów.

G.D.Cassini: Suite des observations faites à l’Observatoire Royal, touchant la Tache qui a paru dans le Soleil, les mois d’Octobre, de Novembre et Decembre derniers, „Journal des sçavans“ t. 5: 1677 s. 11-13, wyd. amsterdamskie; w wyd. paryskim s. 8–9.

G.D. Cassini: Observation de plusieurstacheset faculesdans le Soleilfaiteà l’ObservatoireRoyal par M. Cassini, „Journal des sçavans“ t. 6: 1678 nr21 s. 260–262, wyd. amsterdamskie z 1679 r.

G.D. Cassini: D‘une nouvelle Tache dans le Soleil. Par M. Cassini le fils, „Memoires de mathématique et de physique tirés des registres de l’Académie Royale des Sciences“, t. 4: 1702 s. 139140; wyd. paryskie, bez bieżącej numeracji tomów.

A.M. Clerke: A prolonged sunspot minimum, „Knowledge” t. 17: 1894 s. 206–207.

W. Derham: Observations upon the Spots that have been upon the Sun, from the Year 1703 to 1711, „Philosophical Transactions” t. 27: 1710 s. 270–277.

Description d’unetachequi a parudansle Soleil cemoisde May dernier 1684, „Journal des sçavans“ t. 12: 1684 nr 15 197–201, wyd. amsterdamskie z 1709 r.

J.A. Eddy: The Maunder Minimum, „Science” t. 192: 1976 nr 4245 s. 1189–1202.

J. Flamsteed: An account of a Spot seen in the Sun from the 25th. of April to the 8th. of May instant, with the line of its Course predicted, if it make a second Return, by I.F. Astron. Reg., „Philosophical Transactions” t. 14: 1684 s. 535–536.

J. Flamsteed: HistoriacoelestisBritannica, Londyn 1725.

J. Flamsteed: The correspondence of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, t. 1 (lata 1666–1682), red. E.G. Forbes i in., Bristol i Philadelphia 1995.

J. Flamsteed:The correspondence of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, t. 2 (lata 1682–1703), red. E.G. Forbes i in., Bristol i Philadelphia 1997.

D.V. Hoyt, K.H. Schatten: Overlooked sunspot observations by Hevelius in the early Maunder Minimum,1653 – 1684, „Solar Physicst. 160: 1995 s. 371–378.

D.V. Hoyt, K.H. Schatten: Observations of sunspots by Flamsteed during the Maunder Minimum,

„Solar Physics” t. 160: 1995 s. 379–385.

D.V. Hoyt, K.H. Schatten: How well was the Sun observed during the Maunder Minimum?, „Solar Physics” t. 165: 1996 s. 181–192.

G. Kirch:Die Korrespondenz des Astronomen und Kalendermachers Gottfried Kirch (1639–1710), red. K.D. Herbst, Jena 2006.

L. Křivský, K. Pejml: Solar activity, aurorae and climate in Central Europe in the last 1000 years, „Travaux Géophysiques” t. 33: 1985 s. 77–151.

H.E. Landsberg: Variable Solar Emissions, the ʺMaunder Minimum” and Climatic Temperature Fluctuations, „Archiv für Meteorologie Geophysik und Bioklimatologie“ t. 28: 1980 seria B s. 181–191.

F. Link: Observations et catalogue des aurores boréales apparues en occident de 1601 à 1700, „Geofysikálni Sbornik” t. 212: 1964 s. 501–550.

J. de Mairan: Traité physique et historique de l’aurore boréale, Paryż 1754, wyd. II.

E. Manfredi: De gnomone meridiano bononiensi ad divi Petronii, Bolonia 1736.

E.W. Maunder: Professor Spoerer’s Researches on Sun-spots, „Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society” t. 50: 1890 s. 251–252.

E.W. Maunder: A prolonged sunspot minimum, „Knowledge” t. 17: 1894 s. 173–176.

E.W. Maunder: The Prolonged Sunspot Minimum, 1645–1715, „The Journal of the British Astronomical Association” t. 32: 1922 s. 140–145.

P.C. Le Monnier: Histoire celeste ou recueil de toutes les observations astronomiques faites par ordre du Roy, Paryż 1741.

Observation d‘uneNouvelletâchedansle Soleil, „Journal des sçavans“ t. 6: 1678 nr8 s. 90–91, wyd. amsterdamskie z 1679 r.

Z.L. Pszczółkowska: Korespondenci Jana Heweliusza [w:] Jan Heweliusz, red. M. Pelczar i J. Włodarczyk, Radom 2011, s. 159–198.

J.C. Ribes, E. Nesme–Ribes: The solar sunspot cycle in the Maunder minimum AD 1645 to AD 1715,„Astronomy and Astrophysics” t. 276: 1993 s. 549–563.

W. Soon, S.H. Yaskell: The Maunder Minimum and the Variable Sun–Earth connection, Singapur 2003.

G. Spörer: Ueberdie Periodicitätder Sonnenflecken seit dem Jahre 1618, vornehmlich in Bezug auf die heliographische Breite derselben, und Hinweis auf eine erhebliche Störung dieser Periodicitätwährend eines langen Zeitraumes, „Vierteljahresschrift Astronomische Gesselshaft(Leipsig)” t. 22: 1887 s. 322–329.

G. Spörer: Ueberdie Periodicitätder Sonnenflecken seit dem Jahre 1618, vornehmlich in Bezug auf die heliographische Breite derselben, und Nachweis einer erheblichen Störung dieser Periodicitätwährend eines langen Zeitraumes, „Nova Acta der Kaiserliche Leopoldinisch– CarolinischeDeutschen Akademie der Naturforscher” t. 53: 1889 nr 2 s. 282–324.

Stannyan: Observations made by Captain Stannyan of the Spots that appeard upon the Body of the Sun in the Months of May, June and July, in the year 1704. Communicated by MrHodgson, F. R. S., „Philosophical Transactions” t. 24: 1704–1705 s. 1756–1762.

J.M. Vaquero, M. Vázquez: The Sun Recorded Through History: Scientific Data Extracted from Historical Documents, Berlin 2009.

A.D. Wittmann, Z.T. Xu: A catalogue of sunspot observations from 165 BC to AD 1684, „Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series” t. 70: 1987 s. 83–94.

R. Wolf: Histoire et Mémoires de l’Académie royale des Sciences. Depuis son établissement en 1666 jusqu’à 1699. Vol. 1–11., „Mittheilungen über die Sonnenflecken“ z. 11: 1860 czerwiec s. 30–31.

R. Wolf: Histoire de l’Académie royale des Sciences. Année 1699–1790, „Mittheilungen über die Sonnenflecken“ z. 11 1860czerwiecs. 31–38.

Komunikat bez tytułu i nazwiska autora: „Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences“, t. 2: 1733 s. 264.