Polish medicine in the Russian Empire in the first third of the 19th century

Elena Vishlenkova,

Sergiei Zatravkin

Abstrakt

An official’s complaint about a Polish private doctor who treated his children for scarlet fever in 1827 gave rise to a unique document – a description of the treatment process and of the doctor’s interaction with patients, pharmacists, and Russian authorities. Such evidence is rarely found in the Russian archives. Since private doctors did not report to the officials, their testimonies, as a rule, are not preserved in the state archives. A text found in the archives of the Vilna Medical Board stimulated the authors of the present article to investigate the state of medical care and medical culture of the Polish population that became part of the Russian Empire after the Third Partition of Poland. Vishlenkova and Zatravkin have found that, unlike the rest of the Empire, a rather dense network of private medical care existed in Vilna province until the 1830s, and the level of scientific medical culture of the patients allowed them to establish control over treatment.

Słowa kluczowe: Cesarstwo Rosyjskie, gubernia wileńska, historia medycyny, naukowa kultura medyczna, medycyna prywatna, historia nauki
References

Archival sources

Lithuanian State Historical Archive, Vilnius (Lietuvos valstybės istorijos archyvas) [LVIA], f. 564, ap. 1, b. 21, 58; f. 720, ap. 1, b. 1, 39; f. 721, ap. 1, b. 383.

Russian State Historical Archive, St Petersburg (Rossiyskiy gosudarstvenniy istoricheskiy arkhiv) Petersburg [RGIA], f. 745, op. 3, d. 8, p. 5r.

 

Printed sources

Ameke W. Die Entstehung und Bekämpfung der Homöopathie. Mit einem Anhang: Die heutige Universitäts-Medicin, Berlin 1884.

Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire [Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii], coll. 1, vol. XXXII, no 25664.

Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire [Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii], coll. 1, vol. XXX, no 22739.

Frank J., Pamiętniki D-ra Józefa Franka, Profesora Uniwersytetu Wileńskiego, transl. by W. Zahorski, vol. 1–3, Wilno 1913.

Manifest o razreshenii privoza raznyh inostrannyh tovarov 1816, Saint Petersburg 1816.

Rossiiskaya farmakopeya ili apteka s podrobnym i yasnym nastavleniem, nauchayushhim, v kakom vide i kolichestve luchshe i poleznee kak i vnutr’, tak i snaruzhi upotreblyat’ lekarstva, kak-to: razlichnye poroshki, kapli spirtnye i pr., transl. by I. Leontovich, Moscow 1802.

Theden J.C.A., Kratkie nastavlenia vo vrachebnoi nauke, ili Kratkii sistematicheskii kurs meditsiny: Karmannaya kniga, Moscow 1835.

Vseobshhaya prakticheskaya meditsina, izdannaya Iosifom Frankom… professorom chastnoi terapii i kliniki pri Imperatorskom Vilenskom universitete… perevedennaya s latinskogo yazyka studentom Imperatorskoi Mediko-hirurgicheskoi akademii Moskovskogo otdeleniya Mihailom Matveevskim. Obozrenie predmetov, soderzhashhihsya v Pervoi chasti vo Vtoroi knige Vseobshhei prakticheskoi meditsiny, Moscow 1825.

 

Critical literature

Digby A., Making a Medical Living: Doctors and Patients in the English Market for Medicine, 1720–1911, Cambridge 1994.

Gatina Z., Gde iskat’ dissertatsionnye dela russkih vrachei, ili Osobennosti arhivirovaniya deloproizvodstva meditsinskih fakul’tetov, [in:] Biografii universitetskih arhivov, ed. by E. Vishlenkova, V. Parsamov, K. Ilina, Moscow 2011, p. 102–113.

Howard-Jones N., The scientific background of the International Sanitary Conferences, 1851–1938, Geneva 1975.

Ivanova R., Protokoly zasedanij meditsinskogo fakul’teta Kazanskogo universiteta (1814–1917) kak istoricheskij istochnik, Kazan 2018.

Kośmiński S., Słownik lekarzów polskich obejmujący oprócz krótkich życiorysów lekarzy polaków oraz cudzoziemców w Polsce osiadłych, dokładną bibliografią lekarską polską od czasów najdawniejszych aż do chwili obecnej, Warszawa 1883.

Lane J., A Social History of Medicine. Health, healing and disease in England, 1750–1950, London, New York 2001.

Loudon I., Medical Care and General Practitioner, 1750–1850, Oxford 1986.

Loudon I., The Nature of Provincial Medical Practice in Eighteenth Century England, “Medical History” 1985, no 20, p. 1–32.

Porter R., Vzglyad patsienta. Istoriya meditsiny «snizu», [in:] Bolezn’ i zdorov’e: novye podhody k istorii meditsiny, ed. by Y. Shlyumbom, M. Hagner, I. Sirotkina, Saint Petersburg 2008, p. 41–72.

Rolleston J.D., The history of Scarlet Fever, “British Medical Journal” 1928, no 2, p. 926–929.

Sambuk D., Wächter der Gesundheit. Staat und lokale Gesellschaften beim Aufbau des Medizinalwesens im Russischen Reich 1762–1831, Köln 2015.

Shlyumbom Y., «Beremennye nahodyatsya zdes’ dlya nuzhd uchebnogo zavedeniya». Bol’nitsa Gettingenskogo universiteta v seredine XVIII–XIX vekah, [in:] Bolezn’ i zdorov’e: novye podhody k istorii meditsiny, ed. by Y. Shlyumbom, M. Hagner, I. Sirotkina, Saint Petersburg 2008, p. 73–103.

Starr, Medicine, Economy and Society in Nineteenth Century America, “Journal of Social History” 1977, no 10, p. 588–607.

Stepin V., Stochik A., Zatravkin S., Istoriya i filosofiya meditsiny: nauchnye revolyutsii XVII–XIX vekov. Moscow 2017.

Stochik A., Zatravkin S., K istorii izucheniya patogeneza i poiska sredstv lecheniya holery (po materialam pervyh treh pandemii 1817–1862 gg.), “Terapevticheskii arhiv” vol. 67, 1995, no 7, p. 75–79.

Stochik A., Zatravkin S., Ot klassifikatsionnoi meditsiny k meditsine klinicheskoi (konets XVIII v. – 70-e gg. XIX v.). Soobshenie 5. Reformirovanie lechebnogo dela v 40-h – 60-h gg. XIX veka, “Terapevticheskii arhiv” 2012, no 1, p. 69–73.

Stogova A., Druzheskie otnosheniya v meditsinskom diskurse v kontse XVI–XVII veke, “Dialog so vremenem” 2010, no 33, p. 34–58.

Vishlenkova E., Mediko-biologicheskie ob”yasneniya sotsial’nyh problem Rossii (vtoraya tret’ XIX veka), [in:] Istoriya i istoricheskaya pamyat’: Mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr., vol. 4, ed. by A. Gladyshev, Saratov 2011, p. 37–66.

Vishlenkova E., The State of Health: Balancing Power, Resources, and Expertise and the Birth of the Medical Profession in the Russian Empire, “Ab Imperio” 2016, no 3, p. 39–75.

Vul’f H., Istoriya razvitiya klinicheskogo myshleniya, “Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal meditsinskoj praktiki” 2005, no 1, p. 12–20.

Weindling P. Medical Practice in Imperial Berlin: the Casebook of Alfred Crotjahn, “British History of Medicine” 1987, no 61, p. 391–410.

Zatravkin S., Shepin V., Oleinikova V., Obespechennost’ vrachami naseleniya Rossiiskoi Imperii v XIX – nachale XX veka, “Problemy sotsial’noj gigieny, zdravoohraneniya i istorii meditsiny” 2017, no 4, p. 236–239.