Rzymska pożyczka morska a swoboda inwestowania w ryzykowne przedsięwzięcia

Grzegorz Blicharz

Abstrakt

Roman Sea Loan and Convenient Investing in Risky Ventures
Analysis of Roman sea loan from the modern perspective of Project Finance has been now conducted in the relation to the methods of gaining profit. In pecunia traiecticia interest where considered not as a remuneration for usage of creditors money but as the price for taking over the risk by the creditor. Thus the Latin phrase periculi pretium (D. 22,2,5) has become so famous. The unique character of the interest caused the evolution of the legal construction of the sea loan. At first it was necessary to agree on the fenus nauticum in the stipulation added to the loan. Then, jurisprudence confirmed the possibility of suing debtor for interest also on the ground of the mere pactum. Another aspect of the sea loan which implies the similarity with Project Finance was the privileged position of interest which were not constrained by the legal limits of interest as in the case of typical mutuum. Strict connection between the contract of sea loan and the risky venture one can easily notice when taking into consideration that the agents of creditor were participating in that venture together with the debtor. Moreover, the creditor received not only the loan and the interest but also a remuneration for time which his slaves spent with the debtor. The additional stipulation for agents participation and the character of liability of debtor’s heirs provide a new perspective of the sea loan as a mean to finance risky ventures in antiquity. Modern Project Finance resembles to high extent the ancient solution and that enables further studies on the topic.

 

Słowa kluczowe: pożyczka morska, stypulacja, pactum, odsetki, spekulacja
References

Opracowania:

Z. Benincasa, „Periculi pretium”. Prawne aspekty ryzyka związanego z podróżami morskimi w starożytnym Rzymie (II w. p.n.e. - II w. n.e)., Warszawa 2011.

A. Biscardi, La struttura classica del „fenus nauticum” [w:] Studi in memoria di Aldo Albertoni, t. 2: Diritto romano e bizantino, Padova 1937.

G. Blicharz, Konstrukcja prawna pożyczki morskiej w prawie rzymskim a współczesny Project Finance, „Krakowskie Studia z Historii Państwa i Prawa” 2013, t. 6, z. 4.

H. Kupiszewski, Sul prestito maritimo nel diritto romano classico: profili sostanziali e processuali, „Index” 1972, t. 3.

O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, Lipsiae 1889, t. 2.

W. Litewski, Römisches Seedarlehen, „Iura” 1973, vol. 24.

F. Longchamps de Bérier, Czyżby już starożytni Rzymianie…? „Pecunia traiecticia, „Przegląd Ubezpieczeń Społecznych i Gospodarczych” 1997, nr 8.

A. Pikulska-Robaszkiewicz, Lichwa w państwie i prawie republikańskiego Rzymu, Łódź 1990.

H. Sieveking, Das Seedarlehen des Altertums,Leipzig 1893.

H.J. Roby, Roman Private Law in the Times of Cicero and of the Antonines, vol. II, Cambridge 1902.

J. Sondel, Słownik łacińsko-polski dla prawników i historyków, Kraków 2001.

Źródła:

Digesta. Corpus Iuris Civilis, vol. I, ed. P. Krüger, Berolini 1954.

Corpus Iuris Civilis Iustinianei, cum Commentariis Accursii, Scholiis Contii, et D. Gothofredi lucublationibus ad Accursium, in quibus Glossae obscuriores explicantur, similes & contratiae asseruntur, vitiosa notantur. Tomus hic Primus Digestum Vetus continet, Lugduni, 1627.

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