Particular Type of Property Restitution after World War II – German Military Exercise Areas on the Territory of the Ex-Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia

Václav Valeš

Abstrakt

The article describes the restitution process that took place after 1945 in Czechoslovakia in relation to the property occupied in 1939–1945 in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia for the creation of German military exercise areas. They were supposed to be used for the Germanization of the Czech lands. To create these spaces, the Nazis abused the legal order of the Czechoslovak Republic from 1918 to 1938. The restitution process subject to this territory after 1945 was governed by the separate Directive of the Settlement Office and the National Renewal Fund of 2 December 1947. It was generally based on the principles contained in the Act No. 128/1946 Coll., on the invalidity of certain propertyright acts from the time of oppression and of some other intervention into property-rights, as amended by the Act No. 79/1948 Coll. This directive was, generally speaking, more favorable to restituents than analogous legal regulations. Attention is paid not only to the content of the Directive of 2 December 1947 and related legislation, but also to its application from the end of World War II to the present. The article also refers to the professional literature, which was devoted to the topic. 

Słowa kluczowe: Czechoslovakia, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, German military training grounds, restitution, land law, National Recovery Fund / Czechosłowacja, Protektorat Czech i Moraw, niemieckie poligony wojskowe, restytucja, prawo ziemskie, Narodowy Fundusz Odbudowy
References

Legal acts and other sources

Czech Land Registry, Number of File record 623.

Imperial Regulation No. 337/1914 Reich Law Gazette, implementing bankruptcy code, settlement code, and protect code.

Katastralgebiet Hradisch/katastrální území Hradištko (pod Medníkem) [cadastral area Hradištko (pod Medníkem)], Gerichtsbezirk Eule/soudní okres Jílové (District Court in Jílové), Zahl der Grundbuchseinlage 1/číslo knihovní vložky 1 (Number of record file 1).

Komentář k československému obecnému zákoníku občanskému a občanské právo platné na Slovensku a v Podkarpatské Rusi [Commentary to Czechoslovak General Civil Code and civil right applicable in Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia], Díl šestý (§§ 1342 1502) [Part Six (Sections 1342 to 1502)], eds F. Rouček, J. Sedláček, Prague: V. Linhart, 1937.

Okresní archiv Praha západ, archivní fond MNV Hradištko, podací deník 1946–1947 District Archive Prague West, archive funds of MNC Hradištko, Submissions Log Book for Years 1946–1947.

Presidential Decree No. 100/1945 Coll., on nationalization of mines and some industrial companies.

Presidential Decree No. 101/1945 Coll., on nationalization of some food industry companies.

Presidential Decree No. 102/1945 Coll., on nationalization of stock banks.

Presidential Decree No. 103/1945 Coll., on nationalization of private insurance companies.

Presidential Decree No. 108/1945 Coll., on confiscations of enemy property and National Recovery Funds.

Presidential Decree No. 54/1945 Coll., on reporting and establishment of war damages and damages caused by extraordinary circumstances.

The Act No. 128/1946 Coll., on invalidity of certain property-right acts from the time of oppression and of some other intervention into property-rights.

The Act No. 428/2012 Coll., on property settlement with churches and religious societies.

The Patent No. 946/1811 Coll. of Court Law, the General Civil Code.

The Settlement Office and the National Recovery Fund, Ref. No. ZR 9551/47 of 21 October 1947, National Archive, ÚPV-B fund.

The Settlement Office and the National Recovery Fund, agricultural restitutions, Ref. No. ZR 12373 of 2 December 1947.

The Act No. 128/1946 Coll. with regard to the property on the territory of the ex-German military exercise areas. National Archive, ÚPV-B fund, box 1025.

Katastralgebiet Hradisch/katastrální území Hradištko (pod Medníkem) [cadastral area Hradištko (pod Medníkem)], Gerichtsbezirk Eule/soudní okres Jílové (District Court in Jílové), Zahl der Grundbuchseinlage 1/číslo knihovní vložky 1 (Number of record file 1).

Presidential Decree No. 12/1945 Coll., on confiscation and quick distribution of agricultural property of Germans, Hungarians, and traitors and enemies of Czech and Slovak nation. Government Bureau, Red. No. 1729/dův./47 of 10 September 1947, decision of the 101st meeting of the third government held on 9 September 1947. National Archive, ÚPV-B fund, box 879. The Supreme Court, File No. 30 Cdo 608/2000 of 18 October 2001.

Secondary literature

Arburg A., Staněk T., Vysídlení Němců a proměny českého pohraničí 1945–1951. Díl. I.  Češi a Němci do roku 1945. Úvod k edici [Displacement of Germans and changes in Czech borderlands in the 1945–1951. Part I. Czechs and Germans until the 1945. Introduction to edition], Středokluky 2010.

Brandes D., Germanizovat a vysídlit. Nacistická rodnostní politika v českých zemích [Germanize and displace. Nazi national policy in the Czech Lands], Prague 2015.

Gebhard J., Kuklík J., Velké dějiny zemí Koruny české XV.b. 1938–1945 [Big book of history of Czech Crowns Lands XVb. 1938–1945], Praha – Litomyšl 2007.

Hoffmannová J., Juněcová J., Zřizování cvičiště zbraní SS Benešov a poválečná obnova území 1942-1950 Faksimilia [Establishment of Waffen SS exercise area in Benešov and after-war recovery of the territory 1042-1950. Faksimilia], Praha, Státní ústřední archiv, 1985.

Knapp V., Berman T., Vrácení majetku pozbytého za okupace (Restituční zákon) [Restitution of property lost during occupation (Restitution Act)], Prague 1946.

Knapp V., Nové předpisy o restituci [New restitution regulation], Prague 1948.

Knapp V., Osidlovací právo hmotné [Settlement Material Law], Prague 1949.

Kuklík J., Znárodněné Československo. Od znárodnění k privatizaci státní zásahy do vlastnických a dalších majetkových práv v Československu a jinde v Evropě [Nationalized Czechoslovakia. From nationalization to privatisation state interventions into ownership and other property rights in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in Europe], Prague 2010.

Pradáč K, Restituce majetku v oblasti bývalých německých vojenských cvičišť [Restitution of property in the territory of ex-German military exercise areas], “Osidlování. Věstník  Osidlovacího úřadu a Fondu národní obnovy” [Settlement. Gazette of the Settlement Office and of the National Recovery Fund] 1948, vol. III, no. 2.

Řeháček K., Osidlovací úřad a Fond rodní obnovy v Praze (umístění, personální  obsazení a organizační struktura centrály a oblastních úřadoven v letech 1945–1951) [Settlement Office and National Recovery Fund in Prague (location, personal cast and organizational structure of headquarters and regional branches in the years 1945–1951)] [in:] Paginae historiae. Sborník Státního ústředního archivu 19 (Central State Archive Anthology 19), Prague 2011.

Zouzal T., Zabráno pro SS. Zřízení výcvikového prostoru Böhmen v letech 2. světové války [Seized for SS. Establishment of Böhmen exercise area during World War II], Prague 2016.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.