The capital restrictions in Polish and French media. The selected issues

Katarzyna Gajlewicz-Korab

Abstrakt
Once in a while there is a discussion in the Polish media about the capital concentration, and especially the content of the foreign capital on our market. At the end of 2016 the new government of the Republic of Poland also took up this topic with the view to returning to work on the restrictions of foreign shareholders in Polish media companies. France was recommended as a model to imitate both in KRRiT analysis of 2015 and the present comparison of Poland to France. The topic of the article concerns thus the answers to the questions: What are the restrictions in Poland and France? What do the differences derive from? Can French media system be uncritically imitated, as it happened in case of many other media situations?
Słowa kluczowe: koncentracja kapitału, system medialny Polski, system medialny Francji, capital concentration, Polish media system, French media system
References

Art. 11. Of the Act of 1August 1986 on the legal press system , completing the Act on press law of 1881, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000687451# LEGIARTI000006275056 (access date: 10.04.2019).

Badillo P.Y., Bourgeois D., Lesourd J.B., Media Ownership and Concentration in France [in:] E.M. Noam, Who Owns the World’s Media? Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016, s. 80–96.

Cagé J., Sauver les médias. Capitalisme, financement participatif et démocratie, Le Seuil, Paris 2015.

Charon J.M., La presse quotidienne, La Decouverte, Paris 2005.

Czarny-Drożdżejko E., The Act on radio and television. Komentarz, Warszawa 2014.

Gajlewicz-Korab K., Konarska K., Palczewski M., Conclusions on national media market protection on the basis of the IS report about France and Germany, http://instytutstaszica. org/2017/03/18/wnioski-dotyczace-ochrony-krajowych-rynkow-medialnych-na-podstawie- -raportu-is-o-francji-i-niemczech/ (access date: 10.04.2019).

Hallin D.C., Mancini P., Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics (Communication, Society and Politics), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004.

Hetman R., Czy warto kupić reaktywowany „Przekrój”?, http://czytamrecenzuje.pl/814/czy- -warto-kupic-reaktywowany-przekroj (access date: 15.05.2019).

Lancelot A., Les problemes de concentration dans le domaine des medias, Raport, decemeber 2005, https://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/var/storage/rapports-publics/064000035.pdf (access date: 16.05.2019).

Le Figaro, La télévision, première source d’information de la moitié des Français, http://tvmag. lefigaro.fr/programme-tv/la-television-premiere-source-d-information-de-la-moitie-des-francais_ 0fc7ef20-6d37-11e6-ab55-4ea14c0d722b/ (access date: 10.04.2019).

Legal regulations in the field of radio and television media, http://www.krrit.gov.pl/regulacje- prawne/ (access date: 30.04.2019).

Loi No. 86–1067 z 30 września 1986 roku, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cid- Texte=LEGITEXT000006068930#LEGIARTI000020358296 (access date: 30.04.2019).

Media Pluralism Monitor, PFrancja, http://monitor.cmpf.eui.eu/results-2014/france/ / (access date: 15.05.2019).

Media Pluralism Monitor, Polska, Francja, http://monitor.cmpf.eui.eu/mpm2015/results/poland/ (access date: 15.05.2019).

Mielczarek T., Monopol, pluralizm, koncentracja. Środki komunikowania masowego w Polsce w latach 1989–2006, Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warszawa 2007.

Pallus P., Re-Polonization media concentration restrictions. PiS is working on it; http://businessinsider. com.pl/media/repolonizacja-i-antykoncentracja-mediow-wedlug-pis/sfwrcgw (access date: 15.05.2019).

Piątek S., Dziomdziora W., Wojciechowski K., The Ac t on radio and television. Komentarz, Warszawa 2014. ps (2017), Re-Polonization is a political game, it may be agaist the EU law, http://www. wirtualnemedia.pl/artykul/repolonizacja-mediow-to-gra-polityczna-moze-byc-sprzeczna-z- -prawem-unijnym (access date: 30.04.2019).

Reporters Without Borders, https://rsf.org/ (access date: 15.05.2019).

Rostek H., Regulations on ownership concentration on the media market in chosen countries, KRRIT analysis, http://www.krrit.gov.pl/krrit/aktualnosci/news,2107,koncentracja-wlasnosci-w-mediach.html (access date: 30.04.2019).

Rolland S., La concentration actuelle des médias pose un vrai problème démocratique, http:// www.latribune.fr/technos-medias/medias/la-concentration-actuelle-des-medias-pose-un-vrai- probleme-democratique-julia-cage-502772.html (access date: 15.05.2019).

The Act on the protection of competition and consumers of 16 February 2007 (Dz. U. Nr 50, poz. 331 with changes), http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20070500331 (access date: 15.05.2019).

The Act of 2 July 2017 on the freedom of economic enterprise (t.j. Dz.U. 2013 r. poz. 672 ze zm.), http://aktyprawne.poznajpodatki.pl/inne-ustawy/ustawa-o-swobodzie-dzialalnosci-gospodarczej- dz-u-2013-poz-672/ (access date: 15.05.2019).

The Act of 29 December 1992 on radio and television (Dz. U. 1993 No. 7, poz. 34); http://isap. sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19930070034 (access date: 15.05.2019).

Toussaint-Desmoulins N., L’économie des médias., « Que sais-je ? », 2015, https://www.cairn. info/l-economie-des-medias—9782130650645.htm (access date: 10.04.2019).

Wirtualnemedia.pl, Czwarty dzień strajku w Liberation, 2005, http://www.wirtualnemedia.pl/ artykul/czwarty-dzien-strajku-w-liberation (access date: 30.04.2019).