Doktryna Johna Browna (1736-1788), jej geneza i recepcja w medycynie europejskiej w kontekście kształtowania się standardu klinicznego. Część pierwsza

Bożena Płonka-Syroka

Abstrakt

The John Brown’s doctrine is not considered as important theoretical and practical concept in Polish historiography of medicine. It was not wildly accepted in Polish clinical medicine at the end of 18th century and during first three decades of 19th century, when it was at the height of popularity in Europe. It was also criticized in Polish handbooks for the history of medicine  (Oettinger, Szumowski, Zembrzuski, Seyda, Brzeziński) as well as in translated ones (Petersen, Haeser). Majority of young historians of medicine use English literature where the so called ‘brownism’  is usually not mentioned at all or there is merely one phrase that it was an over-interpretation of William Cullen concepts who was one of the founders of English medicine. This paper which is composed of two parts shows real influence of ‘brownism’ on European medicine at the end of 18th century and at the first decades of 19th century. This doctrine actually met wide reception at many German universities, both in its original form and in the more indirect way, becoming the base for original local medical doctrines. In the first part, I will show the place of ‘brownism’ among other clinical doctrines of its times created as an answer for problematic situation in medical science at the end of 18th century. In the second part, I will analyze the reception od ‘brownism’ in European medicine showing the factors conducive spreading its ideas in some European countries and the others, stopping its reception in the other countries. The paper was based on my source studies on Brown’s doctrine reception in European medicine. It also contains references to literature which is not wildly known for Polish scholars but it shows the debates over medicine modernization process which was present among German historians.

Słowa kluczowe: brownizm, medycyna kliniczna przełomu XVIII i XIX w.