Plato’s Phaedrus 253e5–255a1 Revisited. A Reappraisal of Plato’s View on the Soul

Robert Zaborowski

Abstrakt

The paper is a reconsideration of the second part of the chariot allegory (Phdr. 253e5–255a1). After presenting a rationale and status quæstionis I analyse what Plato says about the lover’s soul when he meets his beloved. As a result a new interpretation is offered. It departs from orthodox and common read- ings because I suggest that (i) the charioteer, the good horse and the bad horse stand not only for, respectively, reason, spirit and appetite, and that (ii) thinking, feeling and desiring should be ascribed not only to, respectively, the charioteer, the good and the bad horse. It is rather that each element of the psyche con- tains a kind of rationality, a kind of affectivity, and a kind of appetite, and, each of the three functions belongs to each of the three elements of the soul. The inward differentiation of kinds of functions should be understood by means of hierarchy. 

Słowa kluczowe: Plato, the Phaedrus, Plato’s conception of the soul, tripartition of the soul, Plato’s chariot allegory, hierarchical approach
References
Adkins A. W. H., From the Many to the One ... A Study of Personality and Views of Human Nature in the Context of Ancient Greek Society, Values and Belief, Constable, London 1970. 
Annas J., An Introduction to Plato’s Republic, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1981. 
Aristotle, The Eudemian Ethics, (ed.) by F. Susemihl, transl. by H. Rackham, Harvard University Press – William Heinemann Ltd., Cambridge, MA – London 1981. 
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, (ed.) J. Bywater, transl. by H. Rackham, Harvard University Press – William Heinemann Ltd., Cambridge, MA – London 1934. 
Aronoff P., [a review of:] W. W. Fortenbaugh, Aristotle on Emotion in: Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2003-05-27 [retrieved Dec. 20, 2009]. 
Bett R., Immortality and the Nature of the Soul in the Phaedrus in: Phronesis 31, 1986, pp. 1–26.
Bobonich C., Plato’s Utopia Recast: His Latter Ethics and Politics, Clarendon Press, Oxford 2002. 
Brennan T., The nature of the spirited part of the soul and its object in: Plato and the Divided Self, (eds.) R. Barney, T. Brennan & Ch. Brittain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, pp. 102–127. 
Burger R., The Thumotic and the Erotic Soul: Seth Benardete on Platonic Psychology in: Interpretation 32, 2004, pp. 57–75. 
Burnyeat M., Culture and Society in Plato’s Republic in: Tanner Lectures 20, 1999, pp. 217–324. 
Burnyeat M. F., The Truth of Tripartition in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106, 2006, pp. 1–23. 
Burnyeat M. F., La vérité de la tripartition in: Le moi et l’intériorité, (eds.) G. Aubry & F. Ildefonse, Vrin, Paris 2008, pp. 37–56. 
Burnyeat M. F., The passion of reason in Plato’s Phaedrus in: M. Burnyeat, Explorations in Ancient and Modern Philosophy, vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, pp. 238–258.
Descartes R., Meditationes de prima philosophia in: Œuvres de Descartes, vol. 7, (eds.) Ch. Adam & P. Tannery, Vrin, Paris 1957. 
Descartes R., Principia philosophiæ, in Œuvres de Descartes, vol. 8, (eds.) Ch. Adam & P. Tannery, Vrin, Paris 1957. 
Descartes R., Meditations metaphysiques in: Œuvres de Descartes, vol. 9, (eds.) Ch. Adam & P. Tannery, Vrin, Paris 1957. 
Descartes R., Les principes de la philosophie in: Œuvres de Descartes, vol. 9, (eds.) Ch. Adam & P. Tannery, Vrin, Paris 1957. 
Ferrari G. R. F., The Struggle in the Soul: Plato, Phaedrus 253c7–255a1 in: Ancient Philosophy 5, 1985, pp. 1–10. 
Ferrari G. R. F., Listening to the Cicadas. A Study of Plato’s Phaedrus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1987. 
Fortenbaugh W. W., Aristotle on Emotion. A Contribution to philosophical psychology, rhetoric, poetics, politics and ethics, [2nd ed.] Duckworth, London 2002. 
Gerson L., A Note on Tripartition and Immortality in Plato in: Apeiron 20, 1987, pp. 81–96.
Griswold C. L., Self–Knowledge in Plato’s Phaedrus, Yale University Press, New Haven & London 1986. 
Guthrie W. K. C., Plato’s View on the Nature of the Soul in: Entretiens sur l’Antiquité Classique, vol. 3: Recherches sur la tradition platonicienne, Fondation Hardt, Vandœuvres – Genève 1957, pp. 3–22. 
Hackforth R., Plato’s Phaedrus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1952. Hall R. W., Ψυχή as Differentiated Unity in the Philosophy of Plato in: Phronesis 8, 1963, pp. 63–82. 
Hermiæ Alexandrini, In Platonis Phaedrum Scholia, (ed.) P. Couvreur, Librairie Emile Bouillon, Paris 1901. 
Hermias Alexandrinus, In Platonis Phaedrum scholia, (eds.) C. M. Lucarini, & C. Moreschini, De Gruyter, Berlin – Boston 2012. 
Humbert J., Syntaxe grecque, Klincksieck, Paris 1954. 
Hume D., A Treatise of Human Nature, (eds.) L. A. Selby–Bigge & P. H. Nidditch, [2nd ed.] Clarendon Press, Oxford 1978. 
Ingarden R., Wykłady z Etyki, (ed.) A. Węgrzecki, PWN, Warszawa 1989. 
Ioannidi H., Contribution à l’étude de la doctrine platonicienne du thymos in: ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ 25–26, 1995–1996, pp. 166–183. 
Irwin T., Plato’s Moral Theory. The Early and Middle Dialogues, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1977. 
Jackson J. H., Croonian Lectures on Evolution and dissolution of the nervous system. Lecture II in: The British Medical Journal, Apr. 5, 1884, pp. 660– 663. 
Jowett B., Introduction to the Phaedrus in: The Dialogues of Plato, transl. B. Jowett, vol. 1, [3rd ed.] Macmillan and Co., London 1892. 
Kahn C. H., Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. The philosophical use of a literary form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996. 
Kalimtzis K., Taming Anger. The Hellenic Approach to the Limitations of Reason, Bristol Classical Press, London 2012. 
Kamtekar R., Speak with the same voice as reason. Personification in Plato’s psychology in: Plato and the Divided Self, (eds.) R. Barney, T. Brennan & Ch. Brittain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, pp. 77–101. 
Klosko G., The ‟Rule” of Reason in Plato’s Psychology in: History of Philosophy Quarterly 5, 1988, pp. 341–356. 
Kraut R., Reason and Justice in Plato’s Republic in: Exegesis and Argument. Studies in Greek Philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos, (eds.) E. Lee, A. D. Mourelatos & R. Rorty, Van Gorcum, Assen 1973, pp. 207–224. 
LeDoux J., The Emotional Brain. The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Simon & Schuster, New York 1996. 
Liddell H. G., Scott R. & Jones H. S., A Greek–English Lexicon with a Supplement, [9th ed.] Clarendon Press, Oxford 1940 [= LSJ]. 
Lovibond S., Plato’s theory of mind in: Companions to ancient thought, vol. 2, (ed.) S. Everson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1991, pp. 35–55. 
Macmurray J., Reason and Emotion, Faber & Faber Limited, London 1935. Marsilio Ficino and the Phaedran Chrioteer, introd., texts, transl. M. J. B. Allen, University of California Press, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London 1981. 
McGibbon D. D., The Fall of the Soul in Plato’s Phaedrus in: Classical Quarterly 14, 1964, pp. 56–63. 
Moline J., Plato’s Theory of Understanding, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison 1981. 
Moravcsik J., Noetic Aspiration and Artistic Aspiration in: Plato on beauty, wisdom and the arts, (eds.) J. Moravcsik & P. Temko, Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, NJ 1982, pp. 29–46. 
Moss J., Appearances and Calculations: Plato’s Division of the Soul in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 34, 2008, pp. 35–68. 
Moss J., Pictures and passions in the Timaeus and Philebus in: Plato and the Divided Self, (eds.) R. Barney, T. Brennan & Ch. Brittain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, pp. 259–280. 
Mouze L., Introduction to: Platon, Phèdre, transl. L. Mouze, Le Livre de Poche, Paris 2007, pp. 55–185. 
Natorp P., Dottrina platonica delle Idee. Una introduzione all’idealismo, transl. V. Cicero, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 1999. 
Nietzsche F., Beyond Good and Evil, transl. W. Kaufmann in: Basic writings of Nietzsche, The Modern Library, New York 2000, pp. 191–435. 
O’Brien M. J., The Socratic Paradoxes and the Greek Mind, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill 1967. 
Ostenfeld E. N., Ancient Greek Psychology and Modern Mind–Body Debate, Aarhus University Press, Aarhus 1987. 
Owen G. E. L., The Place of the Timaeus in Plato’s Dialogues in: The Classical Quarterly 3, 1953, pp. 79–95. 
Palumbo L., Platone e la paura in: Il dibattito etico e politico in Grecia tra il V et il IV secolo, (ed.) M. Migliori, La Città del Sole, Napoli 2000, pp. 283– 304. 
Palumbo L., Eros Phobos Epithymia. Sulla natura dell’emozione in alcuni dialoghi di Platone, Loffredo Editore, Napoli 2001. 
Penner T., Thought and Desire in Plato in: G. Vlastos (ed.), Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, vol. 2, Anchor Books, Garden City, NY 1971, pp. 96– 118. 
Plato, Platonis Opera, vol. 1–5, (ed.) J. Burnet, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1900– 1907.
Plato, Phaedrus, transl. H. N. Fowler, Harvard University Press – William Heinemann Ltd, Cambridge, MA & London 1925. 
Plato, Phaedrus, transl. A. Nehamas & P. Woodruff, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis – Cambridge 1995. 
Plato, Phaedrus, (ed.) H. Yunis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2011. 
Plato, Republic, transl. P. Shorey, Harvard University Press – William Heinemann Ltd, Cambridge, MA & London 1969. 
Platon, Phaidros, transl. C. Ritter, Verlag von F. Meiner, Leipzig 1922. 
Platon, Phaidros, transl. E. Heitsch, Vandenhœck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1993. 
Platon, Phèdre, transl. E. Chambry, Garnier – Flammarion, Paris 1964. 
Platon, Phèdre, transl. P. Vicaire, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1985. 
Platon, Phèdre, transl. L. Mouze, Le Livre de Poche, Paris 2007. Platon, Phèdre, transl. L. Brisson in: Plato, Œuvres complètes, transl. L. Brisson & al., Flammarion, Paris 2011, pp. 1241–1297. 
Platon, Phèdre, transl. L. Brisson, GF, Paris 2012. Platone, Fedro, transl. P. Pucci in: Platone, Opere complete, vol. 1, Editori Laterza, Bari 1966. 
Platone, Fedro, (ed.) G. Reale, A. Mondadori, Milano 1998. 
Plutarch, De animæ procreatione in Timaeo, (ed.) C. Hubert, Teubner, Leipzig 1954. 
Plutarch, Platonic Questions in: Plutarch’s Morals, vol. 2, transl. by several hands, corrected and rev. W. W. Goodwin, Little, Brown, and Co., Boston 1878. 
Plutarch, Platonicæ quæstiones, (ed.) C. Hubert, Teubner, Leipzig 1954. 
Price A. W., Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1989.
Price A. W., Plato and Freud in: The person and the human mind, (ed.) C. Gill, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1990, pp. 247–270. 
Price A. W., Reason’s New Role in the Phaedrus in: Understanding the Phaedrus. II Symposium Platonicum, (ed.) L. Rossetti, Akademia Verlag, Sankt Augustin 1992, pp. 243–245. 
Price A. W., Mental Conflict, Routledge, London – New York 1995. 
Price A. W., Emotions in Plato and Aristotle in: The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion, (ed.) P. Goldie, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010, pp. 121–142. 
Price A. W., Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, Clarendon Press, Oxford 2011. 
Price A. W., Parts of the Soul in Plato’s Phaedrus (unpublished, quoted with permission). 
Rees D. A., Bipartition of the Soul in the Early Academy in: The Journal of Hellenic Studies 77, 1975, pp. 112–118. 
Renaut O., Platon. La médiation des émotions. L’éducation du thymos dans les dialogues, Vrin, Paris 2014. 
Rist J. M., Plato says that we have tripartite souls. If he is right, what can we do about? in: M.–O. Goulet–Gazé, G. Madec & D. O’Brien (eds.), ΣΟΦΙΗΣ ΜΑΙΗΤΟΡΕΣ. «Chercheurs de sagesse». Hommage à Jean Pépin, Institut des Études Augustiniennes, Paris 1992, pp. 103–124. 
Robinson R., Plato’s Separation of Reason from Desire in: Phronesis 16, 1971, pp. 38–48. 
Robinson T. M., Plato’s Psychology, University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1970. 
Romilly de J., Les conflits de l’âme dans le Phèdre de Platon in: Wiener Studien 95, 1982, pp. 100–113. 
Rowe C. J., Plato: Phaedrus, Aris & Phillips, Warminster 1986. 
Rowe C. J., The charioteer and his horses: an example of Platonic myth– making in: Plato’s Myth, (ed.) C. Partenie, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, pp. 134–147. 
Scheler M., Formalism in Ethics and Non–Formal Ethics of Values. A New Attempt toward the Foundation of an Ethical Personalism, transl. M. S. Frings & R. L. Funk, Evanston 1973. 
Sheffield C., Erôs before and after tripartition in: Plato and the Divided Self, (eds.) R. Barney, T. Brennan & Ch. Brittain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, pp. 211–237. 
Spiegelberg H., The Phenomenological Movement. A historical introduction, [3rd ed.] Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1994. 
Spinoza B., Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, transl. J. F. Bennett [available from http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/spinoza 1665.pdf, retrieved Dec. 15, 2017]. 
Stocker M., Psychic Feelings. Their Importance and Irreductibility in: Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61, 1983, pp. 5–26. 
Stocks J. L., Plato and the Tripartite Soul in: Mind 24, 1915, pp. 207–221.
Strigo I. A. & Craig A. D., A neurobiological view of pain as a homeostatic emotion in: The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Pain, (ed.) J. Corns, Routledge, New York 2017, pp. 98–112.
The Dialogues of Plato, transl. B. Jowett, vol. 1, [3rd ed.] Macmillan and Co., London 1892. 
Vander Waerdt P. A., The Peripatetic Interpretation of Plato’s Tripartite Psychology in: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 26, 1985, pp. 283–302. 
Vander Waerdt P. A., Peripatetic Soul–Division, Posidonius, and the Middle Platonic Moral Psychology in: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 26, 1985, pp. 373–394. 
Vlastos G., Justice and Psychic Harmony in the Republic in: The Journal of Philosophy 66, 1969, pp. 505–521. 
White N. P., A Companion to Plato’s Republic, Hackett Publ. Comp., Indianapolis 1979. 
Wilburn J., Courage and the Spirited Part of the Soul in Plato’s Republic in: Philosophers’ Imprint 15, 2015, pp. 1–21. 
Woods M., Plato’s Division of the Soul in: Proceedings of the British Academy 73, 1987, pp. 23–47. 
Woyczyński B., O rozwoju poglądu Platona na duszę [1925], Wyd. UMK, Toruń 2000. Yunis H., Commentary in: Plato, Phaedrus, (ed.) H. Yunis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2011, pp. 85–249. 
Zaborowski R., Rozumienie logos. Presokratycy – Platon in: Przegląd Filozoficzny – Nowa Seria 3/1998, pp. 89–112. 
Zaborowski R., La crainte et le courage dans l’Iliade et l’Odyssée. Contribution lexicographique à la psychologie homérique des sentiments, Stakroos, Warszawa 2002. 
Zaborowski R., Emotions et liberté dans la paideia. Perspectives ancienne et moderne: entre Platon et Claparède in: Paideia: Education in the Global Era, vol. 1, (eds.) K. Boudouris & M. Knežević, Ionia Publications, Athens 2008, pp. 250–263. 
Zaborowski R., Sur le sentiment chez les Présocratiques. Contribution lexicographique à la philosophie des sentiments, Stakroos, Warszawa 2008. 
Zaborowski R., Feeling–Thought Linkage and its Forms in the Ancient and Modern Times in: Greek philosophy and the issues of our age, vol. 1, (eds.) K. Boudouris & M. Adam, Ionia Publications, Athens 2009, pp. 230–240. 
Zaborowski R., Some remarks on Plato on emotions in: Emotions in Pre– & Early Modern Mediterranean. A special issue of Mirabilia: Electronic Journal of Antiquity & Middle Ages 15, 2012, pp. 141–170. 
Zaborowski R., Plato and Max Scheler on the Affective World in: Organon 47, 2015, pp. 65–81. 
Zaborowski R., On the Relevance of Plato’s View on Affectivity to the Philosophy of Emotions in: Journal of Ancient Philosophy 10, 2016, pp. 70–91. 
Zaborowski R., Two Neglected Details in Plato’s Chariot Allegory in: Organon 48, 2016, pp. 191–224. 
Zieliński T., Homeric Psychology [1922], transl. N. Kotsyba in: Organon 31, 2002, pp. 15–46.