Are great natural objects in Sanskrit mahākāvya sublime? A preliminary study on the Loginian notion of the sublime and the practice of Sanskrit classical poets

Ariadna Matyszkiewicz

Abstrakt
This study seeks to compare the generic conventions of the Sanskrit ornate epic poem (mahākāvya) with the Longinian notion of the sublime, belonging to the literary-rhetorical tradition of the classical (Western) antiquity. It characterizes descriptions of mountains and oceans employed in the mahākāvya genre within the theoretical context of the “grand narrative” specified by Sanskrit literary theorists. The practice of Sanskrit poets characterized in this way is compared with the prerequisites of grand style, understood by Pseudo-Longinus as an actualization of the proto-aesthetic category of the sublime.
Słowa kluczowe: mahākāvya, sublime, grand style, Pseudo-Longinus
References
Texts and translations:
1. Aristotle, Poetics, Stephen Halliwell (ed., trans.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge‒London 1995.
2. Aśvaghoṣa, Saundarānanda: The Saundarananda of Aśvaghoṣa, E. H. Johnston (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford 1928.
3. Bhāmaha, Kāvyālaṃkāra: Kāvyālaṅkāra of Bhāmaha. Edited with English Translation and Notes, P. V. Naganatha Sastri (ed., trans.), Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi‒Varanasi‒Patna 1970.
4. Bhāravi, Kirātārjunīya: The Kirātārjunīya of Bhāravi. The Commentary (Ghaṇṭāpatha) of Mallinātha, Paṇdit Durgāprasād, Kāśināth Pāṇ-durang Parab (ed.), third edition, Bombay, Tukārām Jāvajī, 1895.
5. Bharavi’s Poem Kiratarjuniya or Arjuna’s Combat with the Kirata, C. Capeller (trans.), Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 1912.
6. Bhaṭṭi, Bhaṭṭikāvya: The Bhattikavyam of Bhatti with the Commentary of Jayamangala, Govinda Shankara Shastri Bapata (ed.), The Proprietor, Bombay 1887.
7. Bhaṭṭi’s Poem: The Death of Rāvaṇa by Bhaṭṭi, O. Fallon (trans.), in The Clay Sanskrit Library, New York 2009.
8. The Birth of Kumāra by Kālidāsa, Smith D. (trans.), The Clay Sanskrit Library, New York 2005.
9. Cicero, Orator, in D. A. Russel, M. Winterbottom (ed., trans.), Ancient Literary Criticism. The Principal texts in New Translations, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1972.
10. Daṇḍin, Kāvyādarśa: Kāvyādarśa of Daṇḍin. Edited with an Original Commentary, Vidyābhūṣaṇa Pandit Rangacharya Raddi Shastri (ed.), Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona 1938.
11. Demetrius, On Style, D. C. Innes (ed., trans.) based on W. Rhys Roberts, Harvard University Press, Cambridge‒London 1995.
12. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Literary Composition, Rhys Roberts (ed., trans.), Macmillan and Co. Limited, London 1910.
13. Hermogenes, On Types, in D. A. Russel, M. Winterbottom (ed., trans.), Ancient Literary Criticism. The Principal texts in New Translations, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1972.
14. Kālidāsa, Kumārasambhava: Kālidāsa’s Kumārasambhava. Cantos I‒VIII edited with the commentary of Mallinātha, a literal English translation, Notes and Introduction, M. R. Kale (ed.), The Standard Publishing Co., Bombay 1917.
15. The Killing of Shishupala | Magha, Dundas P. (ed., trans.), in Murty classical library of India, vol. 11, Harvard University Press, Cambridge‒London 2017.
16. Longinus, On the Sublime, W. H. Fyfe (trans., ed.), D. Russell (rev.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge‒London 1995.
17. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, in D. A. Russel, M. Winterbottom (ed., trans.), Ancient Literary Criticism. The Principal texts in New Translations, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1972.
18. The Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa with the Commentary (the Saṇjīvinī) of Mallināth, Kāśināth Pāṇḍurang Parab, Wāsudev Laxman Śāstrī Paṇśīkar (ed.), Pāndurang Jāwajī, Bombay 1925.
19. The Śiśupālavadha by Mahākavi Māgha with two Commentaries: The Sandehaviṣauṣadhi by Vallabhadeva and the Sarvaṅkaṣā by Mallinātha, Anantarāma Śāstrī Vetāl, Jagannāth Śāstrī Hośing (ed.), The Kashi Sanskrit Series, No.69 (Kāvya section, No.9), Vidya Vilas Press, Benares 1929.
 
Studies and articles:
20. Boccali G., The Image of Mountains between Itihāsa and Kāvya, “Cracow Indological Studies”, vol. 4/5, 2003, pp. 57‒71.
21. Boccali G., The Sea in Ancient India’s Literary Landscape: Pravarasena’s Setubandha II, 1‒36, “Cracow Indological Studies”, vol. 7, 2005, pp. 115‒123.
22. Flood G., The Meaning and Context of the Puruṣārthas, in J. Lipner (ed.), The Friuts of Our Desiring. An Enquiry into the Ethics of the Bhagavadgīta for Our Times, Bayeux Arts, Inc., Calgary 1997, pp. 11‒27.
23. Kennedy G. A., Theophrastus and Stylistic Distinctions, “Harvard Studies in Classical Philology”, vol. 62, 1957, pp. 93‒104.
24. Lienhard S., A History of Classical Poetry. Sanskrit–Pali–Prakrit, in J. Gonda (ed.), A History of Indian Literature, vol. 3, fasc. 1, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1984.
25. Peterson I. V. Design and Rhetoric in a Sanskrit Court Epic. The Kirātārjunīya of Bhāravi, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York 2003.
26. Płuciennik J., Retoryka wzniosłości w dziele literackim, Univeristas, Kraków 2000.
27. Pontillo T., Rossi P., Sea-images in Pre-kāvya Literature: The Relationship Between Mahābhārata and Pāli Buddhist Canon Occurrences, “Pandanus” vol. 3, 2003, pp. 167‒214.
28. Porter J. I., The Sublime in Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2016.
29. Renou L., Sur La Structure du kāvya, “Journal Asiatique”, vol. 247, 1959, pp. 1‒113.
30. Smith D., Construction and Deconstruction, Narrative and Anti-narrative: The Representation of Reality in the Hindu Court Epic, in Ch. Shackle, R. Snell (ed.) The Indian Narrative: Perspectives and Patterns, Otto Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden 1992, pp. 33‒59.
31. Smith D., Ratnākara’s Haravijaya, an Introduction to the Sanskrit Court Epic, Oxford Univeristy Press, Delhi 1985.
32. Sudyka L., From Aśvaghoṣa to Bhaṭṭi: The Development of the Mahākāvya Genre, “Cracow Indological Studies”, vol. 4/5, 2003, pp. 527‒546.
33. Sudyka L., Od Ramajany do dydaktyki, czyli zagadki poematu Bhattiego, Księgarnia Akademicka, Kraków 2006.
34. Trynkowska A., Definicje sanskryckiego poematu epickiego, “Studia Indologiczne”, vol. 5, 1998, pp. 91‒109.
35. Trynkowska A., Struktura opisów w zabiciu Śiśupali Maghy, Redakcja Studiów Indologicznych, Warszawa 2004.
36. Warder A. K., Indian Kāvya Literature, vol. 1, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1972.
 
Dictonaries:
37. Monier-Williams M., Sanskirt-English Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 2005.
 
Online sources:
[www 01] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/2_kavya/asvsau2u.htm (access: 25.03.2018)
[www 02] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/1_alam/bhakavpu.htm (access: 12.03.2018)
[www 03] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/1_alam/dkavy1pu.htm (access: 12.03.2018)
[www 04] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/2_kavya/bhakirpu.htm (access: 10.04.2018)
[www 05] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/2_kavya/bhattiku.htm (access: 06.04.2018)
[www 06] http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/5_poetry/2_kavya/kragh_pu.htm (access: 25.03.2018)

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.