Chemical composition of utility water in the arid climate zone on the examples of Kébili and Medenine regions (southern Tunisia)

Beata Latos,

Karolina Sobczak-Szelc,

Krzysztof Skocki,

Rafał Kozłowski,

Anna Szczucińska

Abstrakt

Areas located within the hot, arid zone are characterized by extremely low availability of fresh water. In the Tunisian regions of Kébili and Medenine, deep-water sources and connate groundwater constitute its main sources. Surface waters, as well as shallow groundwaters found in those areas, are affected by a high level of salinity, which significantly reduces their use for either drinking or agriculture. Due to intensifying droughts the rainwater accumulation system, neither fulfils the needs of residents nor the developing agriculture. Waters in the oases of El Faour (Kébili) and Beni Kchedeche (Medenine) were analyzed in 2017 to find out their chemical composition, as well as their suitability for irrigation. The chemical composition of the investigated waters is dominated by the Na+, Ca2+, Cl– and SO4 3– ions. The value of electrolytic conductivity (EC) was found to be within the range of 1100 to 6400 μS/cm. The highest concentration of nitrate was 44 mg/L. Salinity indicators classified this water mainly as unsuitable for irrigation on the basis of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and EC, sodium total percentage (%Na) and Kelly’s ratio (KR). The iron concentration in all examined wells exceeded the recommended values set for potable water and ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 mg/L.

Słowa kluczowe: hydrochemistry, groundwater, salinity, arid zone, SAR
References

Abdallah F., Noumi Z., Touzard V., Belgacem A.O., Neffati M., Chaieb M., 2008, The influence of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Subsp. raddiana (Savi) and livestock grazing on grass species composition, yield and soil nutrients in arid environments of South Tunisia, Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 203(2), 116–125.

Agoune A., 2000, Exploitation of the continental intercalaire aquifer at the Kebili geothermal field, Tunisia, United Nations University Geothermal Training Programme Tech Rep (2), 1–27.

Agoune A., 2016, Hydrogeological characteristics of the geothermal transboundary aquifer reservoir case study of the Continental Intercalaire Aquifer System in North Sahara Aquifer System (NSAS) in Southern Tunisian Field, International Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology Research, 4(4), 54–60.

Alaya M.B., Khouni R., Zemni T., Khmeri S., & Zargouni F., 2016, A multicriteria approach to study genesis of salted groundwater, Northern Jeffara (South-eastern Tunisia), LARHYSS Journal, (28), 103–119.

Boulbaba A., Lazzez M., Ben Rabah R., Najet S., 2012, Variations of natural soil salinity in an arid environment using underground watertable effects on salinization of soils in irrigated perimeters in South Tunisia, International Journal of Geosciences, (3), 1040–1047.

Charef A., Guedes A., Noronha F., Sousa M., 2009, Fossil and present-day hydrotermal fluids from North Tunisia: an example of a dynamic fluid evolution, Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxico de Laxe Coruña, (34), 43–58.

Ciaccio L.L., 1971, Water and water pollution, 1st edn., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. Diekkrüger B., Busche H., Klose A., Klose S., Rademacher C., Schulz O., 2012, Impact of Global Change on hydrology and soil degradation – scenario analysis for the semi-arid Drâa catchment (South Morocco) [in:] Bogardi K.J., Leentvar J., Nachtnebel H.P (eds.), River basins and Change, GWSP and UNESCO-IHE, 21–26.

Dłużewski M., 2004, Charakterystyka fizycznogeograficzna obszaru szott Dżerid [Physico-geographical characteristics of the Chott Jerid region] [in:] Dłużewski M. (eds.), Geomorphological workshops – Tunisia, 15–29.04.2004, WGiSR, SGP, Warsaw.

Drouhin G., 1953, Incidences de l’utilisation des eaux souterraines sur l’équilibre hydrologique, Actes Coll. sur l’Hydrologie de la zone aride, Ankara, 129–137.

Farhat B., Mammou A.B., Kouzana L., Chenini I., Podda F., De Giudici G., 2010, Groundwater chemistry of the Mornag Aquifer System in NE Tunisia, Resource Geology, (60), 377–388.

Gouskov N., 1952, Le problème hydrogéologique du bassin artésien de l’oued R’hir. XIXe Congr. géol. Int., t. II, Algier.

Hamzaoui-Azaza F., Ketata M., Bouhlila R., Gueddari M., Riberio L., 2011, Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of drinking water quality in Zeuss–Koutine aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 174(1–4), 283–298.

Härdle W.K., Simar L., 2003, Applied multivariate statistical analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer Science & Business Media.

Hassine H.B., Slimane A.B., Mlawah M., Albouchi L., Gandouzi A., 2013, Effects of underground water on soil salinity and dates production in Kebili Oases Area (Tunisia): The case of El Bahaier Oasi, Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology, (4), 51–58.

Hem J.D., 1985, Study and interpretation of chemical characteristic of natural water, Third Edition, U.S. Geological Survery Water-Supply Paper 2254, Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.

Houatmia F., Azouzi R., Charef A., Bédir M., 2016, Assessment of groundwater quality or irrigation and drinking purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical mechanisms evolution in Northeastern, Tunisia, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(9), 746.

Kelly W.P., 1963, Use of saline irrigation water, Soil Science, 95(6), 385–391.

Lachaal F., Mlayah A., Anane M., Bédir M., Tarhouni J., Leduc C., 2013, Comprehension and hydrogeological conceptualization of aquifer in arid and semi-arid regions using integrated hydrogeological information system: case of the deep aquifer of Zéramdine-Béni Hassen (east-central Tunisia), Arabian Journal of Geosciences 6(7), 2655–2671.

Le Houerou H., 2010, Restoration and rehabilitation of arid and semiarid mediterranean ecosystems in North Africa and West Asia: A review, Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 2010, 14 (1), 184–189.

Lézine A.M., Hély C., Grenier C., Braconnot P., Krinner G., 2011, Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lesson from Holocene Hydrological data, Quaternary Science Reviews, (30), 3001–3012.

Marlet, S., Bouksila, F., Mekki, I., Benaissa, I., 2007, Fonctionnement et salinité de la nappe de l’oasis de Fatnassa: arguments géochimiques [in] M. Kuper, A. Zaïri (eds.), Economies d’eau en systèmes irrigués au Maghreb. Actes du troisième atelier régional du projet Sirma, Nabeul, Tunisie, 4–7 juin 2007, Cirad, Montpellier, France.

Mekki I., Jacob F., Marlet S., Ghazouani W., 2013, Management of groundwater resources in relation to oasis sustainability: The case of the Nefzawa region in Tunisia, Journal of Environmental Management (121), 142–151.

Melgar J.C., Mohamed Y., Serrano Castillo N., García-Galavís P.A., Navarro C., Parra M.A., Beltrán G., Benlloch M., Fernández-Escobar R., 2012, Response of olive trees to irrigation with saline water, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 949: VI International Symposium on Olive Growing.

Mouldi B.M., 2003, Multiple integrated use of geothermal resources in the Kebili region, southern Tunisia [in:] International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavík, 14–17 September 2003, 11–21.

Peel M.C., Finlayson B.L., McMahon T.A., 2007, Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 4(2), 439–473.

Piper A.M., 1944, A graphic procedure in geochemical interpretation of water analyses, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 25, 914–923.

Prinz D., Loeper T., 2008, Nutzung fossilen Grundwassers in der tunesischen Oasenwirtschaft. Efizienz – Notwendigkeit – Sinnhaftigkeit. Presentation 21.02.2008, BGR Hannover.

Ragunath H.M., 1987, Groundwater, 2nd edn, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi.

Rahaingomanana N., 1999, Water chemistry characteristics in small reservoirs of semiarid Tunisia [in:] Rain water harvesting and management of small reservoirs in arid and semiarid areas, ORSTOM/Hydromed-SARECNFR-Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden 29 June–2 July, 1998, Report 3222, 95–106.

Szabolcs I., Darab C., 1964, The influence of irrigation water of high sodium carbonate content of soils [in:] Proceedings of 8th international congress of ISSS, transmission, 2, 803–812.

Tawadros E., 2011, Geology of North Africa, CRC Press.

Timm N.H., 2002, Applied multivariate analysis, Springer Verlag Inc., New York, USA.

Warner N., Lgourna Z., Bouchaou L., Boutaleb S., Tagma T., Hsaissoune M., Vengosh A., 2013, Integration of geochemical and isotopic tracers for elucidating water sources and salinization of shallow aquifers in the sub-Saharan Drâa Basin, Morocco, Applied Geochemistry (34), 140–151.

WHO, 2017, Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating first addendum, Geneva.

Zammouri M., Siegfried T., El-Fahem T., Kriâa S., Kinzelbach W., 2007, Salinization of groundwater in the Nefzawa oases region, Tunisia: Results of a regional-scale hydrogeologic approach, Hydrogeology Journal, 15(7), 1357–1375. 

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie