Problem dezercji w polityce władz Skonfederowanych Stanów Ameryki (1861–1865)

Łukasz Niewiński

Abstrakt

The problem of desertion in the policy of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865)

In this article I intend to focus on the presentation of how desertion was perceived in those times, and in particular, to trace the policies of the Confederacy relating to the growing number of desertions. During the Civil War in America, a soldier who walked away from his own unit without permission and intention to return was regarded as a deserter. On the other hand, the status of soldiers was enjoyed by all officers and soldiers who received a soldier’s pay or were duly enlisted in the service of the Confederate States. From the middle of 1862, efforts were made to solve the problem of desertion from the Confederate Army. Either amnesties were introduced or deserters were threatened with possible use of severe penalties. The policy on desertion was influenced to the greatest extent by: the CSA President Jefferson Davis, General Robert E. Lee, Secretary of War James A. Seddon and the Head of the Conscription Bureau, Brigadier General John S. Preston.
The southern authorities’ policy with respect to the problem of desertion was chaotic and inefficient. According to various estimates, during the war, at least one fourth of all Confederate soldiers deserted from the army.
 

Słowa kluczowe: dezercja, Skonfederowane Stany Ameryki, wojna secesyjna
References

Źródła:

Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, 1863, Richmond, VA 1863.

The Papers of Jefferson Davis, t. 8–9, 11, Baton Rouge, LA 1995–2003.

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Washington D.C. 1880–1901.

The Wartime Papers of Robert E. Lee, red. C. Dowdey, L.H. Manarin, Boston, MA 1961.

Opracowania:

Bardolph R., Confederate Dilemma: North Carolina Troops and the Deserter Problem, Part I, „North Carolina Historical Review” 1989, t. 66, nr 1, s. 61–86.

Bardolph R., Confederate Dilemma: North Carolina Troops and the Deserter Problem, Part II, „North Carolina Historical Review” 1989, t. 66, nr 2, s. 179–210.

Bearman P.S., Desertion as Localism: Army Unit Solidarity and Group Norms in the U.S. Civil War, „Social Forces” 1991, t. 70, nr 2, s. 321–342.

Bessie M., A Rich Man’s War, a Poor Man’s Fight: Desertion of Alabama Troops from the Confederate Army, Tuscaloosa, AL (reprint) 2003.

Bunch J.A., Military Justice in the Confederate States Armies, Shippensburg, PA 2000.

Encyclopedia of the Confederacy, t. 2–3, red. R.N. Current, New York 1993.

Giuffre K.A., First in Flight: Desertion as Politics in the North Carolina Confederate Army, „Social Science History” 1997, t. 21, nr 2, s. 245–263.

Lonn E., Desertion During the Civil War (reprint), Lincoln, NE 1998.

Marrs A.W., Desertion and Loyalty in the South Carolina Infantry, 1861–1865, „Civil War History” 2004, t. 50, nr 1, s. 47–65.

Niewiński Ł., 14. pułk piechoty z Luizjany w wojnie secesyjnej w latach 1861–1865, „Białostockie Teki Historyczne” 2013, t. 11, s. 95–116.

Radley K., Rebel Watchdog. The Confederate States Army Provost Guard, wyd. 2, Baton Rouge, LA 1997.

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Reiger J.F., Deprivation, Disaffection, and Desertion in Confederate Florida, „The Florida Historical Quarterly” 1970, t. 48, nr 3, s. 279–298.

Vandiver F.E., Rebel Brass. The Confederate Command System, Baton Rouge, LA 1956.

Warner E.J., Generals in Gray. Lives of the Confederate Commanders, wyd. 2, Baton Rouge, LA 1999.

Weinert R.P. Jr, The Confederate Regular Army, Shippensburg, PA 1991.

Weitz M.A., A Higher Duty. Desertion Among Georgia Troops During the Civil War, Lincoln, NE–London 2000.

Weitz M.A., More Damning than Slaughter. Desertion in the Confederate Army, Lincoln, NE 2005.

Winthrop W., Military Law and Precedents, wyd. 2, t. 1, Washington D.C. 1920.

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