Elity polityczne hiszpańskiej Restauracji  

Marcin Mleczak

Abstrakt

Political elites in Restoration Spain (1874–1931)

The Restoration in Spain (1874–1931) has been arousing controversy among historians for a long period of time. During the Restoration, the situation in the country was rather stable and its economic growth was slow, but steady. The origins of the bad reputation of the Restoration can be associated with the defeat in the war with the United States (1898) and with the economic backwardness – in comparison with the most powerful nations of Europe (e.g. France or the UK). Nowadays, historians are stressing the fact that Europe’s social and economic growth was not stable in the period of fin de siècle. Some elements of Spanish society – like the structure of the elites – were relatively modern in the context of the epoch, and Spain was not a country dominated by landlords and aristocracy from the Black Legend (la leyenda negra) images.

Słowa kluczowe: Hiszpania, Restauracja (1874–1931), kacykizm, dyktatura Primo de Rivery, pretorianizm.
References

Źródła rękopiśmienne

National Archive, Kew (London), FO 371: General Correspondence.

Źródła drukowane

Zbiory dokumentów

Bajo el fuero militar. La dictadura de Primo de Rivera en sus documentos (1923–1930), red. L. Alvarez Rey, Sevilla 2006.

Modern Spain: A Documentary History, ed. J. Cowans, Philadelphia 2003.

Dzienniki, wspomnienia

FrancoSalgado-Araujo F., Mis conversaciones privadas con Franco, Barcelona 1976.

MadariagaS. de, Spain: A Modern History, London 1972.

MoroteL., El pulso de España, Madrid 1904.

SañaH., El franquismo sin mitos. Conversaciones con Ramón Serrano Suñer, Barcelona 1982.

Opracowania

AnadónJ., La nobleza creada por Alfonso XII (1875–1885) [w:] La sociedad madrileña durante la Restauración 1876–1931, red. A. Bahamonde Magro, L.E. Otero Carvajal,Madrid 1989.

AnadónBenedido J., Constitucion y funciones del senado en el reinado de Alfonso XII, maszynopis rozprawy doktorskiej, Madrid 1993 (Universidad Complutense).

AlvarezJ.E., From Empire to Republic: The Spanish Army, 1898–1931 [w:] A Military History of Modern Spain, eds. J.E. Alvarez, W.H. Bowen, London 2007.

Alvarez-Junco J., Spanish Identity in the Age of Nations, Manchester 2011.

BalfourS., The End of the Spanish Empire 1898–1923, Oxford 1997.

BeckE.R.,A Time of Triumph and of Sorrow: Spanish Politics during the Reign of Alfonso XII, 1874–1885, London 1979.

Ben-Ami S., Fascism from Above. The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain 1923–1930, Oxford 1983.

Ben-Ami S., The Origins of the Second Republic in Spain, Oxford 1978.

BlinkhornM., Land and Power in Arcadia: Navarre in the Early Twentieth Century [w:] Landownership and Power in Modern Europe, eds. R. Gibson, M. Blinkhorn, London 1991.

BosworthR.J.B., Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945–1990, London 1993.

BosworthR.J.B., The Italian Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives in the Interpretation of Mussolini and Fascism, London 1998.

BoydC., Pretorian Politicsin Liberal Spain, Chapel Hill 1979.

CabreraM., Rey ReguilloF. del, The Power of Entrepreneurs: Politics and Economy in Contemporary Spain,New York 2007.

Callahan W.J., The Catholic Church in Spain, 1875–1998, Washington, DC 1998.

Callahan W.J.,Church, Politics, and Society in Spain 1750–1874, Cambridge–London 1984.

Cardona G., El problema military en España, Madrid 1990.

Carnero Arbat T., Democratización limitada y deterioro político, 1874–1930 [w:] Política en la Restauración, 1875–1923, vol. 1: Sistema político y elecciones, red. C. Darde, T. Carnero Arbat, Madrid 1996.

Carr R., Modern Spain 1875–1980, Oxford 1980.

Carr R.,Spain 1808–1975, Oxford 1982.

ChristiansenE., The Origins of Military Power in Spain 1800–1854, Oxford 1967.

ConversiD., The Basques, the Catalans and Spain. Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilisation, London 1997.

CruzJ., Gentlemen, Bourgeois, and Revolutionaries: Political Change and Cultural Persistence among the Spanish Dominant Groups 1750–1900, Cambridge 1996.

Cuenca ToribioJ.M., Sociología de unaélite de poder de España e Hispanoamérica contemporáneas. La jeraquía eclesiástica, 1789–1965,Cordoba 1976.

CuencaToribio J.M., Miranda Garcia S.,Sociologíaministerial de la Restauración (1875–1902), „Revista de estudios políticos”, Octubre–Diciembre 1992, num. 78.

CuencaToribio J.M., Miranda Garcia S., Sociología ministerial de la Restauración (1902–1931), „Revista de estudios políticos”, Enero–Marzo 1992, num. 75.

ElliottJ.H., History in the Making, New Haven 2012.

EnrlichC.E., The Lliga Regionalista and the Catalan Industrial Bourgeoisie, „Journal of Contemporary History” 1998, vol. 33, no. 3.

EsdaileJ., Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War 1808–1939, Oxford 2000.

EvansR.J., Rereading German History 1800–1996: From Unification to Reunification, London 1997.

Gaj R., Ortega y Gasset, Warszawa 2007.

GonzálezM.J., “Neither God Nor Monster”: Antonio Maura and the Failure of Conservative Reformism in Restoration Spain (1893–1923), „European History Quarterly” 2002, vol. 32, no. 3.

GrahamH., The Spanish Republic at War, Cambridge 2002.

HarrisonJ., The Catalan Industrial Elite 1898–1923 [w:] Elites and Power in Twentieth-century Spain, eds. F. Lannon, P. Preston, Oxford 1990.

HarrisonJ., An Espanya Catalana: Catalanist Plans to Transform Spain into a Modern Capitalist Economy, 1898–1923, „Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies” 2001, vol. 7, no. 2.

HennessyC.A.M., The Federal Republic in Spain, Oxford 1962.

HeywoodP., Marxism and the Failure of Organised Socialism in Spain 1879–1936, Cambridge 1990.

HobsbawmE., Age of Empire, New York 1989.

JacobsonS., Catalonia’s Advocates: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759–1900, Chapel Hill 2009.

JensenG., Military Nationalism and the State: The Case of Fin-De-Siècle Spain, „Nations and Nationalism” 2000, vol. 6, no. 2.

KernR.,Liberals, Reformers and Caciques in Restoration Spain, 1875–1909, Albuquerque 1974.

LannonF.,Privilege, Persecution and Prophecy: The Catholic Church in Spain 1875–1975, Oxford 1987.

LarioGonzález M.A., Alfonso XII, católico y liberal, „Bulletin d’histoire contemporaine de l’Espagne” 2003, N. 32–36.

LinzJ.J., Jerez M., Corzo S., Ministers and Regimes in Spain: From the First to Second Restoration, 1874–2002 [w:] Who Governs Southern Europe? Regime Change and Ministerial Recruitment 1850–2000, eds. P. Tavares de Almeida, A. Costa Pinto, N. Bermeo, London 2003.

LleixaJ., Cien años de militarismo en España, Barcelona 1986.

MannM., Sources of Social Power, vol. II, Cambridge 1993.

MarichalC., Spain (1834–1844): A New Society, London 1977.

MartinB., The Agony of Modernization: Labor and Industrialization in Spain, Ithaca 1990.

MartínezCuadrado M., Restauración y crisis de la monarqia (1874–1931), Madrid 1991.

MayerA.J.,The Persistence of the Old Regime, New York 1981.

Miłkowski T., Od mnichów na wojnie do wojny z mnichami. Kościół w społeczeństwie hiszpańskim w XIX i XX wieku, Łask 2006.

MorenoLuzón J., José Canalejas: La democracia, el estado y la nación [w:] Progresistas. Biografías de reformistas españoles, red. J. Moreno Luzón, Madrid 2006.

Moreno-Luzón J., The Government Parties and the King, 1913–1923 [w:] The Agony of Spanish Liberalism: From Revolution to Dictatorship, 1913–23, eds. F.J. Romero Salvadó, A. Smith, London 2010.

Moreno-Luzón J.,Political Clientelism, Elites, and Caciquismo in Restoration Spain (1875–1923), „European History Quarterly” 2007, vol. 37, no. 3.

Mularska-Andziak L., Dyktatura generała Primo de Rivery a hiszpańskie tradycje imperialne 1923–1930, Pułtusk 1999.

Orzechowska-Wacławska J., Baskowie. Powstanie współczesnego narodu, Kraków 2014.

PayneS.G., Basque Nationalism, Reno 1975.

PayneS.G., Politics and the Military in Modern Spain, Stanford 1967.

PayneS.G., Spanish Catholicism: An Historical Overview, Madison 1984.

PayneS.G., Spanish Conservatism 1834–1923, „Journal of Contemporary History” 1978, vol. 13, no. 4.

PrestonP., Franco, London 1993.

QuirogaA., Making Spaniards: Primo de Rivera and the Nationalization of the Masses, 1923–30, London 2007.

RadcliffD.F., Prelude to Franco: Political Aspects of Dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, New York 1957.

RadcliffP., From Mobilization to Civil War: The Politics of Polarization in the Spanish City of Gijon 1900–1937, Cambridge 1996.

RialJ.H., Revolution from Above: The Primo de Rivera Dictatorship in Spain 1923–1930, Washington, DC 1986.

RingroseD., Spain, Europe and the “Spanish Miracle” 1700–1900, Cambridge 1998.

RiquerB. de, Alfonso XIII y Cambó. La monarquia y el catalanismo politico, Barcelona 2013.

RiquerB. de, A vueltas con la Restauración, „Revista de libros”, enero 1999, nr 25.

RomeroSalvado F.J., Spain 1914–1918: Between War and Revolution,London 1999.

SanabriaE., Republicanism and Anticlerical Nationalism in Spain, New York 2009.

SeidmanM.,The Republic of Egos: A Social History of the Spanish Civil War, Madison 2002.

ShubertA., A Social History of Modern Spain, London 1990.

SmithA., The Catalan Counter-revolutionary Coalition and the Primo de Rivera Coup, 1917–23, „European History Quarterly” 2007, vol. 37, no. 1.

StormE., The Rise of the Intellectual Around 1900: Spain and France, „European History Quarterly” 2002, vol. 32, no. 2.

Tuñónde Lara M., Poder y sociedad en España 1990–1931, Barcelona 1992.

TusellJ., Queipo de Llano G., The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera 1923–1931 [w:] Spanish History Since 1808, eds. J. Alvarez Junco, A. Shubert, New York 2004.

TusellX., The Functioning of the Cacique System in Andalusia, 1890–1931 [w:] Politics and Society in Twentieth-century Spain, ed. S.G. Payne,New York 1976.

UllmanJ.C., The Tragic Week: A Study of Anticlericalism in Spain, 1875–1912, Cambridge 1968.

VarelaOrtega J., Aftermath of Splendid Disaster: Spanish Politics before and after the Spanish American War of 1898, „Journal of Contemporary History” 1980, vol. 15, no. 2.

VincentM., Spain 1833–2002: People and State, Oxford 2007.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line. Pierwotną wersją
czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.