Enigma, les décrypteurs polonais et les services secrets français, 1932–1945

Jean-Charles Foucrier

Abstrakt

Enigma, the Polish codebreakers and the French secret service, 1932–1945

In the early 1930’s, the Polish codebreakers succeeded while all the others failed: they broke the Enigma. Three young and brilliant mathematicians, Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Różycki managed to read the German cyphertexts from 1933 to as late as 1939. But this huge success remained a secret for a long time, unknown in France and England. After the fall of Poland in September 1939, the three mathematicians linked their fate with the French secret service and kept breaking the Enigma code. Again, following the French defeat of June 1940, they experienced exile and irremediably sank into oblivion. Today, the story of the Polish codebreakers and the French secret service remains very little known in France, although their work proved decisive in the Allied victory during the Second World War.

Słowa kluczowe: World War II, Enigma, codebreaking, secret service, II wojna światowa, łamanie szyfru, tajne służby
References

Sources

Service Historique de la Défense (SHD) de Vincennes : Fond Gustave Bertrand : dossier DE 2016 ZB 25, boîtes 4 & 5.

Personnel de l’Armée de l’Air : capitaine Henri Braquenié, dossier AI 1 P 20377 1.

Publications

Batey M., Dilly Knox, the Man who broke Enigmas, Londres 2009.

Bertrand G., Enigma, ou la plus grande Enigme de la guerre, Paris 1972.

Bloch G., The French Contribution to the Breaking of Enigma, The Enigma Bulletin, No. 1, édité par Z.J. Kapera, Cracovie, décembre 1990.

Erskine R., The Poles Reveal their Secrets : Alastair Denniston’s Account of the July 1939 Meeting at Pyry, Cryptologia, 30 (4), 2006, p. 294–305.

Dessberg F., La Russie (et l’URSS : Un élément dérangeant des relations franco-polonaises au XXe siècle, Prace Historyczne, 142, Université Jagellonne, Cracovie, 2015, p. 605–620.

Forcade O., La République secrète : Histoire des services spéciaux français de 1918 à 1939, Paris 2013.

Hanyok R.J., Before Enigma : Jan Kowalewski and the early days of the Polish Cipher Bureau (1919–1922) [in :] W. Kozaczuk, J. Straszak, Enigma: How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code, Hippocrene Books, 2004, p. 87–95.

Kapera Z., Marian Rejewski, the Man who defeated Enigma, Cracovie 2013.

Kapera Z., The Triumph of Zygalski’s sheets, Cracovie 2015.

Kapera Z., In the Shadow of Pont du Gard, Cracovie 2011.

Kozaczuk W., Straszak J., Enigma : How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code, New York 2004.

L. Rivet, Carnets du chef des services secrets, 1936–1944, annotés par O. Forcade et S. Laurent, Paris 2010, p. 544–567.

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Paillole P., Notre espion chez Hitler, Paris 2013.

Sebag-Montefiore H., Enigma : The Battle for the Code, Londres 2000.

Stengers J., Enigma, the French, the Poles and the British 1931–1940. Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, tome 82, fasc. 1–2, 2004, p. 449–466.

Stripp A., A British salutes the Polish cryptanalysts [in :] W. Kozaczuk, J. Straszak, Enigma : How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code, New York 2004, p. 123–125.

Tyldum M., The Imitation Game, 2014.

Welchman G., The Hut Six story : Breaking the enigma codes, Londres 1997.

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