Parlamentaryzm doby Jana III Sobieskiego

Robert Kołodziej

Abstrakt

The parliamentary system under John III Sobieski stands out against other eras and has many distinguishing characterstics. Initially, the parliament functioned more effectively at that time than during the reign of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, but its efficiency was steadilly falling. The successes of parliaments were bought at the price of several months of deliberation. The desperate nobility looked for legal solutions, but without violating the liberum veto principle they were not very effective. The increase in the importance of dietines meant that they gathered much more often than before. The limita (continuing the debate after a few weeks’ break) allowed for frequent dietine meetings without issuing a new royal document (uniwersał). However, dietines also experienced a period of political struggle, which can be seen in the increasing number of interrupted dietines. “Senatorial councils” functioned efficiently, but their competences were limited. The king’s attempts to replace parliaments with councils could’ not succeed. 

Słowa kluczowe: Jan III Sobieski, sejm, senat, sejmiki, system parlamentarny, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów , John III Sobieski, parliament, senate, dietine, parliamentary system, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

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