The Protection Provided by International Refugee Organizations in Turkey in the Immediate Post-War Period

Karolina Wanda Olszowska

Abstrakt

In Turkey, during the Immediate Postwar Period (between 1945–1951), functioned the international specialization organizations, such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) and the International Refugee Organization (IRO). Turkey was a country of minor importance in terms of the number of refugees in this period. According to data from IGCR, in 1946, there were 1221 registered refugees in Turkey. Among them were representatives of diff erent nationalities, such as Poles, Yugoslavs, Albanians, Hungarians, Czechoslovaks, Austrians, Germans and Jews of various ethnicities. Later joined by Bulgarians and other anti-communist activists. The international specialization organizations faced various problems, from lack of money to the lack of cooperation from the Turkish government. IRO activists often complained about the sluggishness of Turkish offi cials. The problematic is important as an exemplifi cation of the question of the protection of refugees by the International Community.

Słowa kluczowe: Turkey, refugees, International Refugees Organization, IRO
References

Archival Materials

Archives Nationales de France, Pierrefi tte-sur-Seine, Archives of the I.R.O. – AJ 43.

The National Archives in London, Foreign Offi ce – FO 371.

The Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum in London, Sztab NW i MSWojsk/MON, 1939–1948 – A 12.

Memories

Sokolnicki, M., Ankarski dziennik 1943–1946, Londyn 1974.

Books and Monographs

Bayır, D., Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law, London–New York 2013.

Frantz, D., Collins, C., Death on the Black Sea: The Untold Story of the Struma and World War II’s Holocaust at Sea, New York 2003.

Holborn, L. W., The International Refugee Organization: A Specialized Agency of the United Nations, London–New York–Toronto 1956.

Karpat, K., Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History, Leiden–Boston–Koln 2002.

King, C., O północy w Pera Palace. Narodziny współczesnego Stambułu, transl. J. Hunia, Wołowiec 2016.

Shaw, S. J., Shaw, E. K., Historia Imperium Osmańskiego i Republiki Tureckiej 1808–1975, transl. B. Świetlik, Warszawa 2012.

The Turkish Minority in The People’s Republic of Bulgaria, Sofi a 1951.

Wolff, R. L., The Balkans in Our Time, Cambridge 1974.

Articles

Kostanick, H. L., “Turkish Resettlement of Refugees from Bulgaria, 1950–1953,” Middle East Journal 1955, vol. 9, no. 1.

Sękowski, P., “Activity of the International Community in Europe after the Second World War within the Scope of the International Refugee Organization as a Model of the Aid Action towards Refugees,” Securitologia 2017, no. 3.

Vasileva, D., “Bulgarian Turkish Emigration and Return,” International Migration Review 1992, no. 26.

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