Islandzka dziesięcina w świetle teorii grup interesu

Włodzimierz Gogłoza

Abstrakt

An Interest Group Theory of the Icelandic Tithe

Iceland was the first Nordic country which introduced mandatory tithe. According to the medieval authors the swift introduction of the church tax in Iceland was a result of an extraordinary deference Icelanders showed towards the bishop Gissur Ísleifsson. Contemporary scholars, on the other hand, look for the reasons for the acceptance of the tithe by Icelanders in the unusual structure of the church tax itself. The Icelandic tithe was divided into four parts, two of which were collected by the wealthy owners of private churches. Therefore, some scholars argue, the tithe law of 1097 favored the most powerful members of the society, who could impose their will on others without facing significant resistance. The aim of this article is to analyze the introduction of the tithe in Iceland using the basic tools of the public choice school of economics - the interest group theory, and the free rider theory.

Słowa kluczowe: dziesięcina, średniowieczna Islandia, teoria publicznego wyboru, teoria grup interesu

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