Introduction: Focus on Northern Ireland

Katarzyna Bazarnik,

Leszek Drong

Abstrakt

Belfast murals are one of the landmarks of the city. They constitute a peculiar medium of communications, mixing word and image in a powerful ideological message. They express highly emotional content, and have been addressed to original target audiences of republicans and loyalists. In this respect they have served to reflect and influence sentiments of the communities involved in the conflict, and as a communal memoir commemorating crucial events, thereby contributing to their ethnic identity formations. However, as Northern Ireland has been undergoing the peace process, the murals are becoming one of the city’s tourist attractions. As such, they are encountered by audiences unaware of intricacies and nuances of local history. This paper examines how their complex verbo-visual rhetoric affects this type of audience, and how, in a reciprocal process, political tourism may have an impact on the murals’ style and content.

Słowa kluczowe: Belfast murals, word and image, verbo-visual rhetoric, dark tourism
References

Assmann, J., “Ancient Egypt and the Materiality of the Sign”, [in:] H.U. Gumbrecht, K.L. Pfeiffer (eds.), Materialities of Communication, transl. W. Whobrey, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994, pp. 15-31.

Barry, D., “Belfast journal; Murals of ‘Troubles’ Draw Passions, and Tourists”, The New York Times, 12.09.2000, https://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/12/world/belfast-journal-murals-of-troubles-draw-passions-and-tourists.html[access: 4.09.2018].

Barthes, R., Mythologies (1972), sel. and transl. A. Lavers, New York: Hill & Wang, 1995.

Black, R., “Fury at new Belfast mural of UDA mass murderer Stephen McKeag”, The Belfast Telegraph, 22.09.2016, https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/fury-at-new-
belfast-mural-of-uda-mass-murderer-stephen-mckeag-35068438.html
[access: 4.12.2018].

Boal, F., Douglas, N., Integration and Division: Geographical Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Problem, London: Academic Press, 1982.

CAIN Web Service, Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland, University of Ulster, http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/index.html[access: 4.03.2018].

Forker, M., McCormick, J., “Walls of history: the use of mythomoteurs in Northern Ireland murals”, Irish Studies Review 2009, vol. 17(4), pp. 423-465, DOI: 10.1080/09670880903315898 [access: 6.12.2018].

Goalwin, G., “The art of war: Instability, insecurity, and ideological imagery in Northern Ireland’s political murals, 1979-1998”, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, vol. 26(3), September 2013.

Gross, D., Gross, T.D., “Tagging: Changing visual patterns and the rhetorical implications of a new form of graffiti”, Et Cetera: A Review of General Semantics 1993, no. 50, pp. 251-264. Academic OneFile, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A14540573/
AONE?u=googlescholar&sid=AONE&xid=e9e7bd02
[access: 3.03.2018].

Jarman, N.,Painting Landscapes: The Place of Murals in the Symbolic Construction of Urban Space, the CAIN Project, University of Ulster, http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/bibdbs/murals/jarman.htm[access: 4.09.2018].

Lennon, J., Foley, M., Dark Tourism: The Attraction of Death and Disaster, New York: Continuum, 2000.

Lisle, D., Holidays in the Danger Zone: Entanglements of War and Tourism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016.

Lisle, D., “Local symbols, global networks: Rereading the murals of Belfast”, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, vol. 31(1), January-March 2006, pp. 27-52.

McGovern, N., “24 Belfast Murals You Need to See”, The Culture Trip, 31.01.2017, https://theculturetrip.com/europe/united-kingdom/northern-ireland/articles/24-belfast-murals-you-need-to-see/[access: 4.03.2018].

Nicole, “Black Taxi Tour photo essay”, Bitten by the Travel Bug travel blog, 11.11.2011, https://bittenbythetravelbug.com/political-murals-of-belfast-photo-essay/[access: 2.12.2018].

Nicole, “First Time in Belfast? 5 Must See Sites”, Bitten by the Travel Bug travel blog, 15.06.2012, https://bittenbythetravelbug.com/first-time-in-belfast-five-must-see-sites/[access: 2.12.2018].

Parker, S.B., “Graves, caves, and refugees: An essay in microhistory”, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 2003, vol. 27(3), pp. 259-288.

Pollak, A., “Border crossings: First-time visitors describe their experience of Ireland North and South”, The Irish Times, 26.07.2014, https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/border-crossings-first-time-visitors-describe-their-experience-of-ireland-north-and-south-1.1877003?mode=sample&auth-failed=1&pw-

origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.irishtimes.com%2Flife-and-style%2Fborder-crossings-first-time-
 visitors-describe-their-experience-of-ireland-north-and-south-1.1877003[access: 4.09.2018].

Rapp, M., Rhomberg, M., “Seeking a Neutral Identity in Northern Ireland’s Political Wall Paintings”, Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 2012, vol. 24(4), pp. 470-477, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10402659.2012.732455[access: 5.03.2018].

Rapp, M., Rhomberg, M., “The importance of Murals during the troubles: Analyzing the republican use of wall painting in Northern Ireland”, [in:] D. Machin (ed.), Visual Communication (Handbooks of Communication Science), Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter, 2014, pp. 677-697.

Researchgate https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268446173_The_
importance_of_Murals_during_the_ troubles_Analysing_the_
republican_use_of_wall_paintings_in_Northern_Ireland
[access: 5.03.2018].

Rolston, B., Drawing Support: Murals in the North of Ireland, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications, 1992.

Rolston, B., Drawing Support 2: Murals of War and Peace, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications,1995.

Rolston, B., Drawing Support 3: Murals and Transition in the North of Ireland, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications,2003.

Rolston, B., Drawing Support 4: Murals and Conflict Transformation in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications,2013.

Rolston, B., official website, https://billrolston.weebly.com/(n.d.).

Rolston, B., “Prison murals in Northern Ireland: Art and resistance”, Social Justice, Uncategorized, 31.03.2014, http://www.socialjusticejournal.org/?p=2173[access: 4.03.2018].

Rolston, B., “Selling tourism in a country at war”, Race and Class, vol. 37(1), 1.07.1995, pp. 23-40, https://doi.org/10.1177/030639689503700103[access: 4.09.2018].

Rose, G., Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London, Thousand Oaks & New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2001.

Sharply, R., “Shedding light on dark tourism: An introduction”, [in:] R. Sharpley, P.R. Stone (eds.), The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Channel View Publications, 2009, pp. 3-22.

Taxi Trax, Official Belfast Taxi Tours Website, http://taxitrax.com/belfast-mural-taxi-tours/[access: 4.08.2018].

Žuvela, S., “Graffiti: A form of international communication”, CM: Communication and Management Quarterly2012, vol. 23(7), pp. 23-36 [access: 19.02.2018].

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana
kwartalnie w internecie. Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.