Against Theory:  Selected “girlhood” feminist artistic practices in Poland

Marta Kosińska,

Karolina Sikorska

Abstrakt

The mass public protests against introduction of further limitations on women’s reproductive rights in 2016 become important moment for the Polish feminist movement. Yet, the movement’s structure and semiotic reservoir of justifi cations has visibly changed in the recent years. The young Polish feminism has become more “girlish” than “womanly”. In our paper, we analyze how the “girlhood” artistic practices fi t into the renewal of contemporary refl ection on the gender roles of women and the Polish feminist movement. We analyzed practices of young Polish artivists, involved in girlhood-feminist collectives, and compared their cultural tactics with those of selfi e feminism. The paper focuses on girlhood practices as activities which take place across the individual and collective divide and redefi ne the public sphere. Demonstrating how these initiatives negotiate the normative cultural system, we present expressions of the girlhood experience and describe its social and structural conditions. We analyze feminist artistic practices as expressible and language-based feminine emancipatory practices, using tools typical of analysis of discourse and, predominantly, linguistic performance.

Słowa kluczowe: girlhood, feminism, artivism, feminist artistic practices, confessionalism
References

Artist Audrey Wollen on the Power of Sadness, 20.07.2015, https://nylon.com/articles/audrey-wollen-sad-girl-theory, accessed 12.01.2018.

Borkowski G., “Świadome infantylizacje i duch lat 70. na Bielskiej Jesieni 2007”, Obieg, http://archiwum-obieg.u-jazdowski.pl/recenzje/3792, accessed 1.02.2019.

Borkowski G., Branicka M., Mazur A. (eds.), Nowe zjawiska w sztuce polskiej po 2000 roku, Warszawa: Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej “Zamek Ujazdowski”, 2007.

Charon R., Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Clarke J., Jeerson T., Working Class Youth Cultures”, in: Working Class Youth Culture, ed. by G. Mungham, G. Pearson, London: Routledge, 1976, pp. 138–159.

Cohen P., “Subcultural Conflict and Working-Class Community”, in: Culture, Media, Lan- guage: Working Papers in Cultural Studies 1972–79, ed. by S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Lowe, P. Willis, London–New York: Routledge, 1980, pp. 66–75.

DeCarvalho L.J., “Hannah and Her Entitled Sisters: (Post)Feminism, (Post)Recession and Girls”, Feminist Media Studies 2013, vol. 13 (2), pp. 367–370.

de Certeau M., The Practice of Everyday Life, London: University of California Press, 2011. Golańska D., “O praktykach i procesie. Badania artystyczne a mechanizmy wytwarzania wiedzy w ujęciu nowomaterialistycznym”, in: Feministyczne nowe materializmy: usytuowane kartografie, ed. by O. Cielemęcka, M. Rogowska-Stangret, Lublin: E-naukowiec, 2018, pp. 196–219.

Gonick M., Voices in Longitude and Latitude: Girlhood at the Intersection of Art and Ethnography”, in: Girlhood and the Politics of Place, ed. by C. Mitchell, C. Rentschler, New York–Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016, pp. 38–50.

Hall S., “Encoding/Decoding”, in: Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies 1972–79, ed. by S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Lowe, P. Willis, London–New York: Rout-edge, 1980, pp. 117–127.

Hall S., “Deviance, Politics and Media”, in: The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, ed. by H. Abelove, M.A. Barale, D.M. Halperin, New York–London: Routledge, 1993, pp. 62–90.

Hall S., Jeerson T., Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain, London: Hutchinson, 1976.

Hall S., “Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms”, Media, Culture and Society 1980, no. 2, pp. 57–72.

Holland S., Harpin J., “Who Is the ‘Girly’ Girl? Tomboys, Hyper-femininity and Gender”, Journal of Gender Studies 2013, vol. 24 (3), pp. 293–309.

Jacyno M., Kultura indywidualizmu, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2007. Jakubowska A., “Feministyczne interwencje Griseldy Pollock”, Rocznik Historii Sztuki 2004, vol. 29, pp. 25–48.

Keller J., “Making Activism Accessible: Exploring Girls’ Blogs as Sites of  Contemporary Feminist Activism”, in: Girlhood and the Politics of Place, ed. by C. Mitchell, C. Rent- schler, New York–Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016, pp. 261–278.

Korolczuk E., “Dziewuchy Dziewuchom baśń o pewnej prywatyzacji z nieprostym  morałem”, Krytyka Polityczna, 23.04.2018, http://krytykapolityczna.pl/kraj/dziewuchy-dziewuchom-basn-o-pewnej-prywatyzacji-z-nieprostym-moralem/, accessed 1.03.2019.

Korolczuk E., Kowalska B., Ramme J., Snochowska-Gonzalez C. (eds.), Bunt kobiet. Czarne Protesty i Strajki Kobiet, Gdańsk: Europejskie Centrum Solidarności, 2019.

Krawiec Z., “Smutne dziewczyny”, Dwutygodnik 2017, no. 203, https://www.dwutygodnik. com/artykul/6980-smutne-dziewczyny.html, accessed 1.02.2019.

Kubisa J., Rakowska K., Was I a Strike? Notes on the Polish Womens Strike and the Strike of Parents of Persons with Disabilities”, Praktyka Teoretyczna 2018, vol. 4 (30), pp. 15–50, http:// www.praktykateoretyczna.pl/numery/numery-2018/pt-430-2018/, accessed 7.06.2019.

Kryvda N.Yu., Osadcha L., “Gender Genealogy of Reading as Cultural Practice”, Anthropo- logical Measurements of Philosophical Research 2017, vol. 11, pp. 84–92.

Langerier K.M., “Performing Narrative Medicine”, Journal of Applied Communication Re- search 2009, no. 37 (2), pp. 151–158.

Majewska E., “Słaby opór i siła bezsilnych. #Czarnyprotest kobiet w Polsce”, in:  eadem, Tramwaj zwany uznaniem. Feminizm i solidarność po neoliberalizmie, Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Książka i Prasa, 2017, pp. 25–42.

Mazur N., “Dziewczyny zapraszają do łóżka w Galerii Arsenał”, Gazeta Wyborcza, 7.09.2018, http://poznan.wyborcza.pl/poznan/7,105531,23871043,dziewczyny-zapraszaja-do-lozka. html, accessed 1.02.2019.

McRobbie A., “Beyond Postfeminism”, Public Policy Research 2001, September–November, pp. 179–184.

McRobbie A., “More! New Sexualities in Girls’ and Womens’ Magazines”, in: Back to Reality? Social Experience and Cultural Studies, ed. by A. McRobbie, Manchester–New York: Manchester University Press, 1997, pp. 190–209.

McRobbie A., “Postfeminism and Popular Culture: Bridget Jones and the New Gender Regime”, in: Interrogating Post-feminism: Gender and the Politics of Popular Culture, ed. by Y. Tasker, D. Negra, London: Duke University Press, 2007, pp. 27–39.

McRobbie A., The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change, Los Angeles–London: Sage, 2009.

McRobbie A., Working Class Girls and the Culture of Feminity”, in: Women Take Issue: Aspects of Womens Subordination, ed. by Womens Studies Group CCS  University of Birmingham, London–New York: Routledge, 2012, pp. 96–108.

Parker R., Pollock G., Framing Feminism: Art and the Womens Movement 1970–1985, London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1987.

Parkin F., Class Inequality and Political Order: Social Stratification in Capitalist and Communist Societies, London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1971.

Pollock G., “Feminism and Modernism”, in: Feminisms: A Reader, ed. by M. Humm, New York: Routledge, 2013, pp. 362–366.

Pollock G., Vision and Dierence: Feminism, Femininity and the Histories of Art, London– New York: Routledge, 2006 (1988).

Solnit R., Men Explain Things to Me, Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2015.

Tatar E.M., “Artystki polskie po 2000 roku”, in: Artystki polskie, ed. by A. Jakubowska, Warszawa–Bielsko-Biała: Wydawnictwo Szkolne PWN, 2011, pp. 145–158.

Turner V., The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure, London–New York: Routledge, 2017.

Ujma M., “Ani rewolucja, ani konsumpcja”, in: G. Borkowski, M. Branicka, A. Mazur, Nowe zjawiska w sztuce polskiej po 2000 roku, Warszawa: Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej “Zamek Ujazdowski”, 2007, pp. 48–52.

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana
kwartalnie w internecie. Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.