Bariery literatury dla dzieci. Recepcja książek obrazkowych we Włoszech a kwestia głośnej lektury (przełożyła Monika Woźniak)

Annalisa Sezzi

Abstrakt

Borders of Children’s Literature. Reception of Picture Books in Italy and the Question of Reading Aloud
The article opens with the idea of the international “republic of childhood” without geographical and political borders, as conceived by Hazard and promoted after the Second World War. According to O’Sullivan (2004, 2005), this concept of childhood, and consequently of children’s literature, is idealistic and does not address real problems connected with the process of translation. As a matter of fact, the translation of a book for children from one language into another is not as easy as it might seem: frontiers and custom-houses do exist (Bertea 2000: 94). A peculiar cas limite is represented by
the reception of the picture book in Italy: introduced thanks to the pioneering work of the publishing-house Emme Edizioni and of its translators, the genre was then rejected. Italy had to wait a decade to see the same and similar picture books republished, but it is still paying the price of this initial closing of the borders, which happened even though the translators paid custom-duties and import-duties. These depended not only on the prevailing child image held by the Italian society, but also on the different image of the adult, who was going to read picture books aloud and who was ready to put on  a performance for the child reader (Oittinen 2000). In particular, examples of the discrepancy between the adult and the child images of the source texts and of the target texts selected from American and English picture books and their Italian translations will be investigated.

Słowa kluczowe: picture books, children’s literature in Italy, translation, reading aloud
References

Browne A. 1976a. Through the Magic Mirror, London: Puffi n Books.

––––– 1976b. Lo specchio magico, Milano: Emme Edizioni.

––––– 1980a. Look What I’ve Got!, London – Boston – Sydney: Walker Books.

––––– 1980b. Guarda che cosa ho!, przeł. A. Rossi Stoffel, Milano: Emme Edizioni.

Foreman M. 2002 [1974]. War and Peas, London: Andersen.

––––– 1975. Guerra e pasta, Milano: Emme Edizioni.

Gill B. 1974. Ups and Downs, USA: Addison-Wesley.

––––– 1974. I Su e i Giù, przeł. G. Niccolai, Milano: Emme Edizioni.

Sendak M. 2001 [1963]. Where the Wild Things Are, London: Red Fox.

––––– 1969. Nel paese dei mostri selvaggi, przeł. A. Porta, Milano: Emme Edizioni. Literatura krytyczna

AA.VV. 2005. MM. Alla lettera emme. Rosellina Archinto editrice, Bologna: Giannino Stoppani.

Anstey M., Bull G. 2004. The Picture Book. Modern and Postmodern, w: P. Hunt (red.), International Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature, London – New York: Routledge, s. 329–339.

Bader B. 1976. American Picturebooks. From Noah’s Ark to the Beast Within, New York: MacMillan.

Bertea C., Cerati R. (red.) 2000. Rodari. Le storie tradotte, Novara: Interlinea.

Beseghi E. 2005. Rosellina Archinto: pioniera e archeologa, w: AA.VV., MM, Alla lettera emme: Rosellina Archinto editrice, Bologna: Giannino Stoppani, s. 24–28.

Boero P., De Luca C. 1995. La letteratura per l’infanzia, Roma, Bari: Laterza.

Celotti N. 2008. The Translator of Comics as a Semiotic Investigator, w: F. Zanettin (red.), Comics in Translation, Manchester: St. Jerome, s.. 33–47.

Dal Gobbo A. 2004. Parole e fi gure nell’albo illustrato”, „Liber. Libri per bambini e ragazzi” 61 (styczeń – marzec), Campi Bisenzio, s. 24–30.

––––– 2007. La defi nizione del picturebook, „Liber. Libri per bambini e ragazzi” 75 (lipiec – wrzesień), Campi Bisenzio, s. 42–45.

Dollerup C. 2003. Translating for Reading Aloud, „Meta” 48 (maj), s. 81–103.

Doonan J. 1986. The Object Lesson. Picturebooks of Anthony Browne, „Word & Image” 2/2 (kwiecień – czerwiec), s. 159–173.

––––– 1993. Looking at Pictures in Picture Books, Stroud: Thimble.

Faeti A. 2005. C’era una volta in Italia, w: AA.VV., MM, Alla lettera emme: Rosellina Archinto editrice, Bologna: Giannino Stoppani, s. 8–23.

Finocchi L. 2005. La Emme nella storia dell’editoria italiana, w: AA.VV., MM, Alla lettera emme: Rosellina Archinto editrice, Bologna: Giannino Stoppani, s. 28–31.

Fochesato W. 2000. Libri illustrati: come sceglierli?, Milano: Mondadori.

Genette G. 1976. Figure III. Discorso del racconto, Torino: Einaudi.

Graham J. 1998. Picture Books, w: K. Reynolds, N. Tucker (red.), Children’s Book Publishing in Britain since 1945, Aldershot: Scholar Press, s. 60–85.

Hazard P. 1971 (1933). Uomini, ragazzi e libri, Bologna: Armando.

Heins P. (red.). 1977. Crosscurrents of Criticism. Horn Book Essays 1968–1977, Boston: Horn Book.

Klingberg G. 1986. Children’s Fiction in the Hands of the Translators, „Studia psychologica et pedagogica”, seria 2., Lund: CWK Gleerup.

Kress G., van Leeuwen T. 1996. Reading Images. The Grammar of Visual Design, London – New York: Routledge.

Landes S. 1985. Picture Books as Literature, „Children’s Literature Association Quarterly” 10/2, s. 51–54.

Lathey G. 2006. Translating Sound in Children’s Literature, w: P. Pinsent (red.), No Child Is an Island: The Case of Children’s Literature in Translation, Lichfi eld: Pied Piper, s. 182–186.

Massi E. 2004. La pedagogia della Emme Edizioni e gli anni Sessanta. Conversazione con Antonio Faeti, „Hamelin” 10, s. 41–43.

Metcalf E. M. 1995. The Rhythm of Texts: Translating for Children, „The Lion and the Unicorn” 19/ 2, s. 292–296.

Moebius W. 1986. Introduction to Picturebook Codes, „Word&Image. A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry” 2/2 (kwiecień – czerwiec), s. 141–158.

Nikolajeva M., Scott C. 2006 [2001]. How Picturebooks Work, New York – London: Routledge.

Nodelman P. 1988. Words about Pictures. The Narrative Art of Children’s Picture Books, Athens: U of Georgia P.

Nord C. 1995. Text-Functions in Translation: Titles and Headings as a Case in Point, „Target” 7/ 2, s. 261–284.

O’Connell E. 1999. Translating for Children, w: G. Anderman, M. Rogers (red.), Words, Text, Translation, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, s. 208–216.

––––– 2003. What Dubbers of Children’s Television Programmes Can Learn from Translators of Children’s Books?, „Meta” 48 (maj), s. 222–31.

Oittinen R. 1995. The Verbal and the Visual: On the Carnivalism and Dialogics of Translating for Children, „Compar(a)ison” 2, s. 49–65.

––––– 2000. Translating for Children, New York: Garland.

––––– 2003. Where the Wild Things Are. Translating Pictures Books, „Meta” 48, s. 128–141.

––––– 2006. No Innocent Act. On the Ethics of Translating for Children, w: J. Van Coillie, W. P. Verschueren (red.), Children’s Literature in Translation. Challenges and Strategies, Manchester: St Jerome, s. 35–45.

Lewis D. 1995. The Picture Book. A Form Awaiting its History, „Signal” 77, s. 99–112.

Øster A. 2006. Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales in Translation, w: J. Van Coillie, W.P. Verschueren (red.), Children’s Literature in Translation: Challenges and Strategies, Manchester: St Jerome, s. 141–155.

O’Sullivan E. 2004. Internationalism, the Universal Child and the World of Children’s Literature, w: P. Hunt (red.), International Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature, London – New York: Routledge, s. 13–25.

––––– 2005 (2000). Comparative Children’s Literature, London – New York: Routledge.

Pallottino P. 1988. Storia dell’illustrazione italiana. Libri e periodici a fi gure dal XV al XX secolo, Bologna: Zanichelli.

Pinsent P. (red.) 2006. No Child Is an Island: The Case of Children’s Literature in Translation, Lichfi eld: Pied Piper.

Puurtinen T. 1994. Dynamic Style as a Parameter of Acceptability in Translated Children’s Books, w: M. Snell-Hornby, F. Pöchacker, K. Kaindl (red.), Translation Studies. An Interdiscipline, Amsterdam – Philadelphia: Benjamin, s. 83–90.

Rodari G. 1997 (1973). Grammatica della fantasia, San Dorlingo della Valle: Einaudi Ragazzi (TS).

Rossi P. 2003. Translated and Adapted. The Infl uence of Time on Translation, „Meta” 48, s. 142–81.

Schwarcz J.H. 1982. Ways of the Illustrator. Visual Communication in Children’s Literature, Chicago: American Library.

Schwarcz J.H., Schwarcz C. 1984. The Picture Book Comes of Age, Chicago – London: American Library.

Sezzi A. 2008. Bridging the Sensorial Gaps: Theory and Practice in Translating the Voice of the Adult Aloud Reader in Pre-school Picturebooks, w: R. Hyde Parker, K. Guadarrama García (red.), Thinking Translation. Perspectives from Within and Without, Conference Proceedings. Third UEA Postgraduate Translation Symposium, Brown Walker, s. 157–174.

––––– 2009a. ‘This isn’t a drawing, mommy, it’s a story!’ Translating the Voice of the Adult Reader in Pre-School Picture Books, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (ms).

––––– 2009b. The Translation of Pre-School Picturebooks. Towards a Different Child Image and a Different Voice of the Adult Aloud Reader, w: D. Torretta, M. Dossena, A. Sportelli (red.), Proceedings of the 23rd AIA Conference – Forms of Migration/ Migration of Forms, s. 352–368.

Shavit Z. 1986. Poetics of Children’s Literature, Athens – London: U of Georgia P.

Shulevitz U. 1985. Writing with Pictures. How to Write and Illustrate Children’s Books, New York: Watson-Gullip.

Sipe L. 1998. How Picture Book Work: A Semiotically Framed Theory of Text-Picture Relationships, „Children’s Literature in Education” 29/2, s. 97–108.

Spitz E. H.. 2001 [1999]. Libri con le fi gure. Un viaggio tra parole e immagini, Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori.

Stephens J. 1999. Language and Ideology in Children’s Fiction, London – New York: Longman.

Stöckl H. 2004. In Between Modes. Language and Image in Printed Media, w: E. Ventola, C. Charles, M. Kaltenbacher (red.), Perspectives on Multimodality, Amsterdam – Philadelphia: Benjamins, s. 9–30.

Vassalli P. 2005. Una storia in forma di immagini, w: C. Francucci, P. Vassalli (red.), Educare all’arte, Milano: Electa, s. 53–57.

Valentino Merletti R. 2004a. Il picture book, questo sconosciuto, „Liber. Libri per bambini e ragazzi” 61 (styczeń – marzec), Campi Bisenzio, s. 17–21.

Venuti L. 1995. The Translator’s Invisibility. A History of Translation, London – New York: Routledge.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.