Przywiązanie w dorosłości a jakość funkcjonowania w bliskim związku emocjonalnym w świetle wybranych wyników badań

Dorota Katarzyna Suwalska-Barancewicz

Abstrakt

Attachment in adulthood and the quality of close relationships in the light of selected study results

The attachment theory is one of the more significant and empirically confirmed theories, which provides a relatively full explanation of the specificity of close relationships. Continuators of Bowlby (2007), while making a significant contribution to the development of research in this area, contributed to the knowledge of how people with variously shaped attachment styles function.
In the presented study we analyze relationships of attachment, with such variables as: emotional control, communication, preference as regards the partner, perception of the partner, as well as aggression and violence towards the partner.
This article presents empirical evidence that safely, confidently attached people (whose avoidance and anxiety level is low), have the ability to function in relationships, increasing the chance of success in a relationship and the sense of contentment of the partners. In contrast, individuals with insecure attachment patterns may be more likely to experience difficulty in a close relationship

Słowa kluczowe: przywiązanie, jakość funkcjonowania związku, satysfakcja z relacji
References

Ainsworth M.D.S., Blehar M.C., Waters E., Wall S.N. (1978), Patterns of Attachment: A Psychosocial Study of the Strange Situation and at Home. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Akister J., Reibstein J. (2004), Links between attachment theory and systemic practice: Some proposals. Journal of Family Therapy, 26, 2–16.

Barrett P.M., Holmes J. (2001), Attachment relationships as predictors of cognitive interpretation and response bias in late adolescence. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 10(1), 51–61.

Bartholomew K., Horowitz L.M. (1991), Attachment styles among young adults: A test of four-category mo­del. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226–244.

Bowlby J. (1978), Wypowiedź druga. W: R. Zazzo (red.), Przywiązanie, 142–155. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby J. (1980), Attachment and Loss: T. 3. Loss, Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby J. (1988), A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby J. (2007), Przywiązanie (przeł. M. Polaszewska-Nicke). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Bretherton I., Munholland K.A. (1999), Internal working models in attachment relationships. W: J. Cassidy, P.R. Shaver (eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications, 89–111. New York: The Guilford Press.

Carnelley K.B., Pietromonaco P.R., Jaffe K. (1994), Depression, working models of others, and relationship functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 127–140.

Cobb R.J., Davila J., Bradbury T.N. (2001), Attachment security and marital satisfaction: The role of positive perceptions and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(9), 1131–1143.

Collins N.L., Read S.J. (1990), Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 644–663.

Crowell J.A., Treboux D. (1995), A review of adult attachment measures: Implications for theory and research. Social Development, 4, 294–327.

Crowell J.A., Treboux D., Waters E. (2002), Stability of attachment representation: The transition to marriage. Developmental Psychology, 38(4), 467–479.

Czub T. (2005), Wiek niemowlęcy. Jak rozpoznać ryzyko i jak pomagać? W: A.I. Brzezińska (red.), Psychologiczne portrety człowieka, 67–93. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Davila J., Kashy D.A. (2009), Secure base processes in couples: Daily associations between support experien­ces and attachment security. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(1), 76–88.

Doroszewicz K. (2008), Bliskie związki a jakość życia. Psychologia jakości życia, 7(1–2), 5–18.

Doumas D., Pearson C.L., Elgin J.E., McKinley L.L. (2008), Adult attachment as a risk factor for intimate partner violence: The „Mispairing” of partners’ attachment styles. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), 616–634.

Eid P., Boucher S. (2012), Alexithymia and dyadic adjustment in intimate relationships: Analyses using the actor partner interdependence model. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(10), 1095–1111.

Erikson E.H. (1997), Dzieciństwo i społeczeństwo. Poznań: Rebis.

Feeney J.A. (1996), Attachment, caregiving, and marital satisfaction. Personal Relationships, 3, 401–416.

Feeney J.A. (1999), Adult attachment, emotional control, and marital satisfaction. Personal Relationships, 6, 169–185.

Feeney J.A, Noller P. (1990), Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 281–291.

Feeney J.A., Noller P. (1996), Adult Attachment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Feeney J.A., Noller P., Roberts N. (2000), Attachment and close relationships. W: C. Hendrick S.S. Hendrick (eds.), Close Relationships: A Sourcebook, 184–201. Thousand Oaks–London: Sage Publication.

Fincham F.D. (1994), Cognition in marriage: Current status and future challenges. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, 185–198.

Fitzpatrick M.A., Fey J., Segrin C., Schiff J.L. (1993), Internal working models of relationships and marital communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 12, 103–131.

Fraley R.C., Davis K.E. (1997), Attachment formation and transfer in young adults’ close friendships and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 131–144.

Fraley R.C., Davis K.E., Shaver P.R. (1998). Dismissing-avoidance and the defensive organization of emotion, cognition, and behavior. W: J.A. Simpson, W.S. Rholes (eds.), Attachment Theory and Close Relationships, 249–279. New York: Guilford Press.

Fuller T.L., Fincham F.D. (1995), Attachment style in married couples: Relation to current marital functio­ning, stability over time, and method of assessment. Personal Relationships, 2, 17–34.

Gottman J.M. (1994), What predicts divorce? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hall C., Lindzey G., Campbell J. (2004), Teorie osobowości. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Harwas-Napierała B. (2006), Zmiany komunikacji w poszczególnych fazach małżeństwa. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 11 (4), 35–41.

Havighurst R. (1981), Developmental Tasks and Education. New York: Longmans.

Hazan C., Shaver P. (1987), Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524.

Holmes J.G. (2002), Interpersonal expectations as the building blocks of social cognition: An interdependence theory perspective. Personal Relationships, 9, 1–26.

Holmes B.M., Johnson K.R. (2009). Adult attachment and romantic partner preference: A review. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26 (6–7), 833–852.

Holtzworth-Munroe A., Stuart G.L., Hutchinson G. (1997), Violent versus nonviolent husbands: Differences in attachment patterns, dependency, and jealousy. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(3), 314–331.

Johnson S.M., Makinen J.A., Millikin J.W. (2001), Attachment injuries in couple relationships: A new perspe­cti­ve on impasse in couples therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27, 145–155.

Kaźmierczak M., Plopa M. (2006), Style przywiązaniowe partnerów a jakość komunikacji w małżeństwie. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 4, 115–126.

Kelley H.H., Thibaut J.W. (1978), Interpersonal Relations: A Theory of Interdependence. New York: Wiley.

Kenny D.A., Ledermann T. (2010), Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 359–366.

Kerr S.L., Melley A.M., Travea L., Pole M. (2003), The relationship of emotional expression and experience to adult attachment style. Individual Differences Research, 1, 108–123.

Kirkpatrick L.A., Davis K.E. (1994), Attachment style, gender, and relationship stability: A longitudinal analy­sis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(3), 502–512.

Knabb J.J., Vogt R.G. (2011), The relationship between personality and marital adjustment among distressed married couples seen in intensive marital therapy: An actor-partner interdependence model analysis. Contemporary Family Therapy, 33, 417–440.

Kobak R., Duemmler S. (1994), Attachment and conversation: Toward a discourse analysis of adolescent and adult security. Attachment Processes in Adulthood, 5, 121–149.

Liberska H., Suwalska D. (2011a), Attachment and partnership in a close relationship. W: H. Liberska (ed.), Relations in Marriage and Family: Genesis, Quality, and Development, 31–51. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnic­two Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego.

Liberska H., Suwalska D. (2011b), Quality of close relationship from the viewpoint of attachment theory. W: H. Liberska (ed.), Current Psychosocial Problems in Traditional and Novel Approaches, 59–78. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego.

Liberska H., Suwalska D. (2011c), Znaczenie przywiązania dla funkcjonowania młodych dorosłych w związkach intymnych. W: H. Liberska, A. Malina (red.), Wybrane problemy współczesnych małżeństw i rodzin, 69–86. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Difin.

Loeys T., Molenberghs G. (2013), Modeling actor and partner effects in dyadic data when outcomes are ca­tegorical. Psychological Methods, 18(2), 220–236.

Lowyck B., Luyten P., Demyttenaere K., Corveleyn J. (2008), The role of romantic attachment and self-cri­ticism and dependency for the relationships satisfaction of community adults. Journal of Family Therapy, 30(1), 78–95.

Malina A. (2014), Wczesna dorosłość w cyklu życia człowieka. Współczesne problemy z realizacją zadań rozwojowych młodych dorosłych. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego.

Malina A., Suwalska D. (2012), Przywiązanie i satysfakcja z realizacji zadań rozwojowych w bliskich związkach a zachowania agresywne między partnerami. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 17(2), 71–86.

Mikulincer M. (1998), Attachment working models and the sense of trust: An exploration of interaction goals and affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 513–524.

Mikulincer M., Florian V., Cowan P.A., Cowan C.P. (2002), Attachment security in couple relationships: A systemic model and its implications for family dynamics. Family Process, 41(3), 405–434.

Mikulincer M., Shaver P.R., Slav K. (2006), Attachment, mental representation of others, and gratitude and forgiveness in romantic relationships. W: M. Mikulincer, G.S. Goodman (eds.), Dynamics of Romantic Love: Attachment, Caregiving, and Sex, 190–215. New York: Guilford Press.

Mikulincer M., Shaver P.R. (eds.). (2007), Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change. New York–London: The Guilford Press.

Morrison T.L., Goodlin-Jones B., Urquiza A.J. (1997), Attachment and the representation of intimate relationships in adulthood. Journal of Psychology, 131, 57–71.

Noller P., Fitzpatrick M.A. (1990), Marital communication in the eighties. Journal of Marriage and the Fa­mily, 52, 832–843.

Pietromonaco P.R., Feldman Barrett L. (1997), Working models of attachment and daily social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1409–1423.

Pistole M.C. (1994), Adult attachment styles: Some thoughts on closeness-distance struggles. Family Process, 33(2), 147–159.

Plopa M. (2005), Więzi w małżeństwie i rodzinie – metody badań. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Impuls.

Plopa M. (2014), Więzi małżeńskie i rodzinne w perspektywie teorii przywiązania. W: I. Janicka, H. Liberska (red.), Psychologia rodziny, 141–166. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Rholes W.S., Simpson J.A., Oriňa M.M. (1999), Attachment and anger in an anxiety-provoking situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 6, 940–957.

Robins R.W., Caspi A., Moffitt T.E. (2000), Two personalities, one relationship: Both partner’s personality traits shape the quality of their relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(2), 251–259.

Rostowski J. (1987), Zarys psychologii małżeństwa. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

Rostowski J. (2003), Style przywiązania a kształtowanie się związków interpersonalnych w rodzinie. W: I. Janicka, T. Rostowska (red.), Psychologia w służbie rodziny, 19–31. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.

Rutter M. (1983), Statistical and personal interactions: Facets and perspective. W: D. Magnusson, V.L. Allen (eds.), Human Development: An Interactional Perspective, 295–319. New York: Academic Press.

Saffrey C., Bartholomew K., Scharfe E., Henderson A.J.Z., Koopman R. (2003), Self and partner-perception of interpersonal problems and relationship functioning. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20(1), 117–139.

Schachner D.A., Shaver P.R., Gillath O. (2004), Attachment style and long-term singlehood. Personal Relationships, 15, 479–491.

Scharfe E., Bartholomew K. (1994). Reliability and stability of adult attachment patterns. Personal Relationships, 1, 23–43.

Senchak M., Leonard K.E. (1992), Attachment styles and marital adjustment among newlywed couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 51–64.

Simpson J.A. (1990), Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 971–980.

Simpson J.A., Rholes W., Phillips D. (1996), Conflict in close relationships: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 899–914.

Simpson J.A., Rholes W. (1998), Attachment Theory and Close Relationships. New York: Guilford Press.

Solomon J., George C. (1999), The development of attachment in separated and divorced families: Effects of overnight visitation, parent and couple variables. Attachment and Human Development, 1(1), 2–33.

Stawicka M. (2008), Autodestruktywność dziecięca w świetle teorii przywiązania. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Świętochowski W. (2014), Rodzina w ujęciu systemowym. W: I. Janicka, H. Liberska (red.), Psychologia rodziny, 21–45. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Tracy J.L., Shaver P.R., Albino A.W., Cooper M.L. (2003), Attachment styles and adolescent sexuality. W: P. Florsheim (ed.), Adolescent Romance and Sexual Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practical Implications, 137–159. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Welch R.D., Houser M.E. (2010), Extending the four-category model of adult attachment: An interpersonal model of friendship attachment. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27(3), 351–366.

Wojciszke B. (2005), Psychologia miłości. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Ziółkowska B. (2005), Okres wczesnej dorosłości. Jak rozpoznać potencjał młodych dorosłych? W: A.I. Brzezińska (red.), Psychologiczne portrety człowieka, 423–468. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna
publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.