Mobbing – w poszukiwaniu wczesnych przyczyn zjawiska

Kamila Madeja-Bień,

Małgorzata Gamian-Wilk,

Łukasz Andrzejewski

Abstract. The article offers a review of knowledge on the problem of mobbing. It presents theoretical approaches explaining this phenomenon. The main sources of aggressive behaviors in early childhood are discussed in great detail, indicating its subjective and situational determinants. The possible effects are presented of aggression in children at further stages of development, with special emphasis on its negative consequences. Emphasized is also the importance of early aggression for future development of the mobbing behavior.
Słowa kluczowe: mobbing, agresja, źródła agresji, skutki wczesnej agresji.

Anderson C.A., Bushman B.J. (2002), Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.

Anooshian L.J. (2005), Violence and aggression in the lives of homeless children: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 2, 129–152.

Aronson E., Wilson T.D., Akert R.M. (2012), Psychologia społeczna. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.

Bandura A., Ross D., Ross S.A. (1961), Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575–582.

Bettencourt B.A., Talley A., Benjamin A.J., Valentine J. (2006), Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 5, 751–777.

Berkowitz L. (1993), Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, and Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Borden R.J. (1975), Witnessed aggression: Influence of an observer’s sex and values on aggressive responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 567–573.

Bost K.K., Vaughn B.E., Washington W.N., Cielinski K.L., Bradbard M.R. (1998), Social competence, social support, and attachment: Demarcation of construct domains, measurement, and paths of influence for preschool children attending head start. Child Development, 69, 192–218.

Bowlby J. (1973), Attachment and Loss, Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.

Bush J.E., Ehrenberg M.F. (2003), Young persons’ perspectives on the influence of family transitions on sibling relationships: A qualitative exploration. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 39, 3–4, 1–35.

Bushman B.J., Huesmann L.R. (2006), Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 4, 348–352.

Campbell S.B., Breaux A.M., Ewing L.J., Szumowski E.K. (1986), Correlates and predictors of hyperactivity and aggression: A longitudinal study of parent-referred problem preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 2, 217–234.

Chakowski M. (2005), Mobbing. Aspekty prawne. Bydgoszcz–Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Branta.

Cummings E.M., Hollenbeck B., Iannotti R., Radke-Yarrow M., Zahn-Waxler C. (1986), Early organization of altruism and aggression: Developmental patterns and individual differences. W: C. Zahn-Waxler, E.M. Cummings, R. Iannotti (eds.), Altruism and Aggression: Biological and Social Origins, 165–188. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cummings E.M., Iannotti R.J., Zahn-Waxler C. (1985), The influence of conflict between adults on the emotions and aggression of young children. Developmental Psychology, 21, 495–507.

Cummings E.M., Zahn-Waxler C. (1993), Emocje i socjalizacja agresji: gniewne zachowanie się dorosłych a pobudzenie i agresja dzieci. W: A. Frączek, H. Zumkley (red.), Socjalizacja a agresja, 75–102. Warszawa: Instytut Psychologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk.

Czeredrecka B. (1988), Potrzeby psychiczne sierot społecznych. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Związków Zawodowych.

Czub M. (2003), Znaczenie wczesnych więzi społecznych dla rozwoju emocjonalnego dziecka. Forum Oświatowe, 2, 29, 31–49.

Daly M., Wilson M. (2001), Risk-taking, intrasexual copetition, and homicide. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 47, 1–36.

Dambach J. (2003), Krzyczeć, bić, niszczyć. Agresja u dzieci w wieku do 13 lat. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Dodge K.A. (1980), Social cognition and children’s aggressive behavior. Child Development, 51, 1, 162–170.

Dollard J., Doob L., Miller N.E., Mowrer O.H., Sears R.R. (1939), Frustration and Aggression. New Haven, CT, US: Yale University Press.

Eron L.D., Huesmann L.R., Dubow E., Romanoff R., Yarmel P.W. (1987), Aggression and its correlates over 22 years. Childhood Aggression and Violence, 249–262.

Espelage D.L., Swearer S.M. (2009), Contributions of three social theories to understanding bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth. W: M.J. Harris (ed.), Bullying, Rejection, and Peer Victimization: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, 151–170. New York: Springer.

Farrington D.P. (1993), Understanding and preventing bullying. Crime and Justice, 17, 381–458.

Felson R.B., Rosso N. (1998), Parental punishment and sibling aggression. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 1–18.

Filipczuk H. (1980), Potrzeby psychiczne dzieci i młodzieży. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy CRZZ.

Frączek A. (1993), Socjalizacja a intrapsychiczna regulacja agresji interpersonalnej. W: A. Frączek, H. Zumkley (red.), Socjalizacja a agresja, 47–60. Warszawa: Instytut Psychologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk.

Frączek A. (red.) (1986), Studia nad uwarunkowaniami i regulacja agresji interpersonalnej. Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków–Gdańsk–Łódź: Osssolineum PAN.

Fromm E. (1973), The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Gebauer K. (2007), Mobbing w szkole. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy PAX.

Geen R.G. (2001), Human Aggression. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Griffin R.S., Gross A.M. (2004), Childhood bullying: Current empirical findings and future directions for research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 4, 379–400.

Hinde R.A. (1993), Niektóre problemy agresywnego zachowania. W: A. Fraczek, H. Zumkley (red.), Socjalizacja a agresja, 15–24. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Psychologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk.

Hirigoyen M.F. (2003), Molestowanie w pracy. Poznań: Wydawnictwo „W drodze”.

Hodges E.V., Malone M.J., Perry D.G. (1997), Individual risk and social risk as interacting determinants of victimization in the peer group. Development Psychology, 33, 6, 1032–1039.

Howe N., Rinaldi C.M., Jennings M., Petrakos H. (2002), „No! The lambs can stay out because they got co-
zies”: Constructive and destructive sibling conflict, pretend play, and social understanding. Child Development, 73, 5, 1460–1473.

Jolliffe D., Farrington D.P. (2011), Is low empathy related to bullying after controlling for individual and social background variables? Journal of Adolescence, 34, 59–71.

Jundziłł E. (2003), Potrzeby psychiczne dzieci i młodzieży, diagnoza–zaspokojenie. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.

Juvonen J., Gross E.F. (2005), The rejected and the bullied: Lessons about social misfits from developmental psychology. W: K.D. Williams, J.P. Forgas, W. von Hippel (eds.), Sydney Symposium of Social Psychology series. The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying, 155–170. New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

Kaltiala-Heino R., Rimpelä M., Mattunen M., Rimpelä A.H., Rantanen P. (1999), Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: School survey, British Medical Journal, 7, 319, 7206, 348–351.

Keane S.P., Calkins S.D. (2004), Predicting kindergarten peer social status from toddler and preschool problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 409–423.

Kocemba I. (2009), Ci, którzy dręczą innych. Psychologia w Szkole, 1, 21, 132–139.

Kochenderfer-Ladd B., Wardrop J.L. (2001), Chronicity and instability of children’s peer victimization experiences as predictors of loneliness and social satisfaction trajectories. Child Development, 72, 134–151.

Komendant-Brodowska A., Giza-Poleszczuk A., Baczko-Dombi A. (2011), Przemoc w szkole. Raport z badań. Raport zrealizowany w ramach ogólnopolskiego programu Szkoła bez przemocy.

Ladd G.W., Burgess K.B. (1999), Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children during early grade school. Child Development, 70, 4, 910–929.

Lansford J.E., Chang L., Dodge K.A., Malone P.S., Oburu P., Palmérus K., Bacchini D., Pastorelli C., Bombi A.S., Zelli A., Tapanya S., Chaudhary N., Deater-Deckard K., Manke B., Quinn N. (2005), Physical discipline and children’s adjustment: Cultural normativeness as a moderator. Child Development, 76, 6, 1234–1246.

Leymann H. (1990), The mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Violence and Victims, 5, 119–126.

Loeber R. (1982), The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior: A review. Child Development, 53, 6, 1431–1446.

Maćkowicz J. (2009), Przemoc w wychowaniu rodzinnym. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza „Impuls”.

Marcus-Newhall A., Pedersen W.C., Carlson M., Miller N. (2000), Displaced aggression is alive and well: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 4, 670–689.

Mellibruda J. (2015), Rany i blizny społeczne. Instytut Psychologii Zdrowia PTP: Wydawnictwo Zielone Drzewo.

Meyers D.G. (1993), Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miles D.R, Carey G. (1997), Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1, 207–217.

Mitscherlich M. (ed.) (1992), Aggression and Anpassung. Munchen: Piper.

Monks C.P. (2012), Przemoc między przedszkolakami. W: C.P. Monks, I. Coyne (red.), Przemoc i mobbing w szkole, w domu i w miejscu pracy, 25–50. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Monks C.P., Coyne I. (red.) (2012), Przemoc i mobbing w szkole, w domu i w miejscu pracy. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Monks C.P., Smith P.K., Swettenham J. (2003), Aggressors, victims and defenders in preschool: Peer, self and teacher reports. Merill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 453–469.

Monks C.P., Smith P.K., Swettenham J. (2005), Psychological correlates of peer victimisation in preschool: Social cognitive skills, executive function and attachment profiles. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 571–588.

Naylor P.B., Petch L., Azam Ali P. (2012), Przemoc domowa: mobbing w domu. W: C.P. Monks, I. Coyne (red.), Przemoc i mobbing w szkole, w domu i w miejscu pracy, 104–129. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Nelson D.A., Hart C.A., Yang C., Olsen J.A., Jin S. (2006), Aversive parenting in China: Associations with child physical and relational aggression, Child Development, 77, 554– 572.

Olweus D. (1979), Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 4, 852–875.

Olweus D. (1993), Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Olweus D. (2003), Bully/victim problems at school: Basic facts and an effective intervention programme. W: S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, C.L. Cooper (eds.), Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice, 62–77. London: Taylor & Francis Press.

Ortega R., Monks C.P. (2005), Agresividad injustificada entre preescolares. Psicothema, 17, 3, 453–458.

Owen L., Shute R., Slee P. (2000), „Guess what I just heard!” Indirect aggression among teenage girls in Australia. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 67–83.

Patterson C.R., Littman R.A., Bricker W. (1967), Assertive behavior in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 32, 1–43.

Patterson G., Sanson A. (1999), The association of behavioural adjustment to temperament, parenting and family characteristics among 5-year-old children. Social Development, 5, 125–137.

Piekarska A. (2008), Mobbing – niebezpieczna bimba w szkole. Psychologia w Szkole, 3, 19, 69–80.

Pospiszyl I. (1999), Razem przeciw przemocy. Warszawa: „Żak”.

Reykowski J. (1979), Motywacja, postawy prospołeczne a osobowość. Warszawa: PWN.

Rhee S.H., Waldman I.D. (2002), Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial Behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490–529.

Rigby K. (2002), New Perspectives on Bullying. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Rigby K. (2010), Przemoc w szkole. Jak ją ograniczyć? Poradnik dla rodziców i pedagogów. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Rosenthal M.D., Doherty M.D. (1984), Serious sibling abuse by preschool. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 2, 186–190.

Roustit C., Renahy E., Guernec G., Lesieur S., Parizot I., Chauvin P. (2009), Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: Advocacy for early prevention. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 1–6.

Smith P.K. (1997), Bullying in schools: The UK experience and the Sheffield Anti-Bullying project. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 2, 191–201.

Shaw D.S., Owens E.B., Vondra J.I., Keenan K., Winslow E.B. (1996), Early risk factors and pathways in the development of early disruptive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 679–699.

Smith P.K., Madsen K.C., Moody J.C. (1999), What causes age decline in reports of being bullied at school? Towards a developmental analysis of risks of being bullied. Educational Research, 41, 267–285.

Smith P.K., Sharp S. (eds.) (1994), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routlegde.

Smith P.K, Singer M., Hoel H., Cooper C.L. (2003), Victimization in the school and the workplace: Are there any links? British Journal of Psychology, 94, 2, 175–88.

Stadelmann S., Peren S., von Wyl A., von Klitzing K. (2007), Associations between family relationships and symptoms/strenghts at kindergarden age: What is the role of children’s parental representations? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 996–1004.

Surzykiewicz J. (2005), Agresja i przemoc w szkole w świetle ogólnopolskich badań nauczycieli w latach 1997 i 2003. W: K. Ostrowska, J. Surzykiewicz (red.), Zachowania agresywne w szkole. Warszawa: Centrum Metodyczne Pomocy Psychologiczno-Pedagogicznej.

UNICEF (2000), Domestic Violence against Women and Girls. Innocenti Digest NO 6 Sienna, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

Wawrzyniak J. (red.) (2007), Socjologiczne i psychopedagogiczne aspekty przemocy. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Humanistyczno-Ekonomicznej.

Williams K., Chambers M., Logan S., Robinson D. (1996), Association of common health symptoms with bullying in primary school children. British Medical Journal, 313, 17–19.

Wojciszke B. (2011), Psychologia społeczna. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Scholar.

Wood J.J., Cowan P.A., Baker B.L. (2002), Behavior problems and peer rejection in preschool boys and girls. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163, 1, 72–88.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna
publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.