Zarządzanie emocjami? Funkcje zarządzające a rozwój emocjonalny

Małgorzata Stępień-Nycz


Managing emotions? Executive functions and emotional development

Recent interest in the executive functions has resulted in intensive research on the relation between these and other aspects of functioning, especially language and theory of mind. However, there are relatively few studies of the relation between the executive functions and emotional development, despite the fact that the executive functions are supposed to regulate not only thoughts and behaviour but also emotions (Best et al. 2009).
The paper presents a review of research on the relations between the executive functions and two aspects of the emotional development: emotion regulation and emotion understanding. The emotion regulation seems to be closely connected with the executive functions; in some contexts, these two constructs become undistinguishable, especially where the hot executive functions are concerned (Zelazo & Cunningham 2007). As we consider the cool aspect of the executive functions, research suggests that inhibition and cognitive flexibility may play a role in the emotion regulation. Similarly, inhibition and cognitive flexibility, together with working memory, seem to be related to the emotion understanding.
Finally, the paper quotes results suggesting a modifying influence of emotions on the executive functioning. Analysis of the mutual relations between the executive functioning and the emotional development has helped to elaborate the model of the relations between the control and the understanding in the domains of cognition and emotions (Leerkes et al. 2008).

Słowa kluczowe: rozwój emocjonalny, zimne i gorące funkcje zarządzające, regulacja emocji, rozumienie emocji

Anderson V.A., Anderson P., Northam E., Jacobs R., Mikiewicz O. (2002), Relationships between cognitive and behavioural measures of executive function in children with brain disease. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 231–240.

Ardila A. (2008), On the evolutionary origins of executive functions. Brain and Cognition, 68, 92–99.

Bechara A. (2004), The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Brain and Cognition, 55, 30–40.

Bechara A., Damasio A.R., Damasio H., Anderson S. (1994), Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 7–15.

Bechara A., Damasio H., Damasio A.R. (2000), Emotion, decision-making, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 295–307.

Best J.R., Miller P.H., Jones L.L. (2009), Executive functions after age 5: changes and correlates. Developmental Review, 29, 180–200.

Blair C., Granger D., Razza R.P. (2005), Cortisol reactivity is positively related to executive function in pre-school children attending Head Start. Child Development, 76(3), 554–567.

Blankson A.N, O’Brien M., Leerkes E.M., Marcovitch S., Calkins S.D. (2012), Differentiating processes of control and understanding in the early development of emotion and cognition. Social Development, 21(1), 1–20.

Bowlby J. (1969/2003), Attachment and Loss. London: Hogarth Press. (wyd. pol.: Przywiązanie. Warszawa: PWN).

Carlson S.M. (2005), Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595–616.

Carlson S.M., Davis A.C., Leach J.G. (2005), Less is more: Executive function and symbolic representation in preschool children. Psychological Science, 16(8), 609–616.

Carlson S.M., Moses L.J. (2001), Individual differences in inhibitory control and children’s theory of mind. Child Development, 72(4), 1032–1053.

Carlson S.M., Wang T.S. (2007), Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cognitive Development, 22, 489–510.

Cassidy J. (1994), Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 240, 228–249.

Crone E.A., van der Molen M.W. (2004), Developmental changes in real life decision-making: Performance on a gambling task previously shown to depend on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 251–279.

Dillon D.G., Pizzagalli D.A. (2007), Inhibition of action, thought and emotion: A selective neurobiological review. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 12(3), 99–114.

Dreisbach G., Goschke T. (2004), How positive affect modulates cognitive control: Reduced perseveration at the cost of increased distractibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(2), 343–353.

Feldman R. (2009), The development of regulatory functions from birth to 5 years: Insights from premature infants. Child Development, 80(2), 544–561.

Fox N.A., Calkins S.D. (2003), The development of self-control of emotion: intrinsic and extrinsic influenc- es. Motivation and Emotion, 27(1), 7–26.

Gokcen S., Bora E., Erermis S., Kesikci H., Aydin C. (2009), Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children. Psychiatry Research, 166, 46–53.

Gioia G.A., Isquith P.K., Guy S.C., Kenworthy L. (2000), The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Func- tion. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Gioia G.A., Isquith P.K., Retzlaff P.D., Espy K.A. (2002), Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a clinical sample. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 249–257.

Gnepp J., Chilamkurti C. (1988), Children’s use of personality attributions to predict other people’s emotional and behavioral reactions. Child Development, 59, 743–754.

Gyurak A., Goodkind M.S., Madan A., Kramer J.H., Miller B.L., Levenson R.W. (2009), Do tests of executive functioning predict ability to downregulate emotions spontaneously and when instructed to suppress? Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 9(2), 144–152.

Happaney K.R., Zelazo P.D., Stuss D.T. (2004), Development of orbitofrontal function: Current themes and future directions. Brain and Cognition (Special Issue: Development of Orbitofrontal Function), 55, 1–10.

Hoaken P.N.S., Allaby D.B., Earle J. (2007), Executive cognitive functioning and the recognition of facial expressions of emotion in incarcerated violent offenders, non-violent offenders and controls. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 412–421.

Hongwanishkul D., Happaney K.R., Lee W.S.C, Zelazo P.D. (2005), Assessment of cool and hot executive function in young children: Age-related changes and individual differences. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 617–644.

Hughes C. (1998), Executive function in preschoolers: Links with theory of mind and verbal ability. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 233–253.

Isquith P.K., Gioia G.A., Espy K.A. (2004), Executive function in preschool children: Examination through everyday behavior. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 403–422.

Jacques S., Zelazo P.D. (2001), The Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST): A measure of executive function in preschoolers. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20(3), 573–591.

Jacques S., Zelazo P.D. (2005), Language and the development of cognitive flexibility: implications for theory of mind [w:] J.W. Astington, J.A. Baird (eds.), Why language matters for theory of mind. Oxford: Uni versity Press.

Jahromi L.B., Stifter C.A. (2008), Individual differences in preschoolers’ self-regulation and theory of mind. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54(1), 125–150.

Jurado M.B., Rosselli M. (2007), The elusive nature of executive functions: A review of our current understanding. Neuropsychology Review, 17, 213–233.

Kerr A., Zelazo P.D. (2004), Development of “hot” executive function: The Children’s Gambling Task. Brain and Cognition (Special Issue: Development of Orbitofrontal Function), 55, 148–157.

Kochanska G., Murray K.T., Jacques T.Y., Koenig A.L., Vandegeest K.A. (1996), Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490–507.

Koven N.S., Thomas W. (2010), Mapping facets of alexithymia to executive dysfunction in daily life. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 24–28.

Kurtz M.M., Ragland J.D., Moberg P.J., Gur R.C. (2004), The Penn Conditional Exclusion Test: A new measure of executive function with alternate forms for repeat administration. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19,  191–201.

Leerkes E.M., Paradise M., O’Brien M., Calkins S.D., Lange G. (2008), Emotion and cognition processes in preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54(1), 102–124.

Lehto J.E., Elorinne E. (2003), Gambling as an executive function task. Applied Neuropsychology, 10(4), 234–238.

Lehto J.E., Juujärvi P., Kooistra L., Pulkkinen L. (2003), Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children. The British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 59–80.

Lewis M., Stanger C., Sullivan M.W. (1989), Deception in 3-year-olds. Developmental Psychology, 25, 439–443.

Liebermann D., Giesbrecht G.F., Müller U. (2007), Cognitive and emotional aspects of self-regulation in preschoolers. Cognitive Development, 22, 511–529.

Magar E.C.E., Phillips L.H., Hosie J.A. (2008), Self-regulation and risk-taking. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 153–159.

Mangelsdorf S.C., Shapiro J., Marzolf D. (1995) Developmental and temperamental differences in emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 66, 1817–1828.

Mathersul D., Palmer D.M., Gur R.C., Gur R.E., Cooper N., Gordon E., Williams L.M. (2009), Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: II. Core domains and relationships with general cog- nition. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31(3), 278–291.

Mayer J.D., Salovey P. (1999), Czym jest inteligencja emocjonalna? [w]: P. Salovey, D.J. Sluyter (red.), Rozwój emocjonalny a inteligencja emocjonalna, 23–69. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis.

McDonald S., Bornhofen C., Shum D., Long E., Saunders C., Neulinger K. (2006), Reliability and validity of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): A clinical test of social perception. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28(24),  1529–1542.

Mischel W., Shoda Y., Rodriguez M.L. (1989), Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933–938.

Miyake A., Friedman N.P., Emerson M.J., Witzki A.H., Howerter A., Wager T.D. (2000), The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable anal- ysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.

Nęcka E., Lech B., Sobczyk N., Śmieja M. (2012), How much do we know about our cognitive control? Self- report and performance measures of executive functions. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,
28(3), 240–247.

Oh S., Lewis C. (2008), Korean preschoolers’ advanced inhibitory control and its relation to other executive skills and mental state understanding. Child Development, 79(1), 80–99.

Overman W.H. (2004), Sex differences in early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on cognitive tasks that rely on orbital prefrontal cortex. Brain and Cognition (Special Issue: Development of Orbitofrontal Func- tion), 55, 134–147.

Perner J., Lang B., Kloo D. (2002), Theory of Mind and Self-Control: More than a common problem of inhibition. Child Development, 73(3), 752–767.

Pons F., Harris P., de Rosnay M. (2004), Emotion comprehension between 3 and 11 years: Developmental periods and hierarchical organization. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1(2), 127–152.

Putko A. (2008), Dziecięca „teoria umysłu” w fazie jawnej i utajonej a funkcje wykonawcze. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Qu L., Zelazo P.D. (2007), The facilitative effect of positive stimuli on 3-year-olds’ flexible rule use. Cognitive Development, 22, 456–473.

Rakoczy H. (2010), Executive function and the development of belief-desire psychology. Developmental Science, 13(4), 648–661.

Rothbart M.K., Ellis L.K., Posner M.I. (2004), Temperament and self-regulation [w:] R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs (eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory and applications, 357–370. New York: Guilford Press.

Saarni C. (1984), An observational study of children’s attempts to monitor their expressive behavior. Child Development, 55, 1484–1513.

Saarni C. (1999), The development of emotional competence. New York: The Guilford Press.

Sabbagh M.A. (2004), Understanding orbitofrontal contributions to theory-of-mind reasoning: Implications for autism. Brain and Cognition (Special Issue: Development of Orbitofrontal Function), 55, 209–219.

Senn T.E., Espy K.A., Kaufmann P.M. (2004), Using path analysis to understand executive function organization in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 445–464.

Stępień M. (2007), Wiedza o emocjach: badania nad strukturą i zmianami rozwojowymi. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 12(1), 49–59.

Stępień-Nycz M. (2011), Przyjmowanie perspektywy w obszarze poznawczym, społecznym i afektywnym:wzajemne zależności u dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 16(4), 57–72.

Stępień-Nycz M. (2012), Rozwój reprezentacji emocji w okresie dzieciństwa. Niepublikowana praca doktorska, przygotowana pod kierunkiem prof. dr hab. Marii Kielar-Turskiej. Kraków, Uniwersytet Jagielloński.

Strommen E.A. (1973), Verbal self-regulation in a children’s game: Impulsive errors on „Simon says”. Child Development, 44, 849–853.

Tager-Flusberg H., Sullivan K. (2000), A componential view of theory of mind: Evidence from Williams syndrome. Cognition, 76, 59–89.

Thompson R.A. (1994), Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, The Development of Emotion Regulation: Biological and Behavioral Considerations, 59(2/3), 25–52.

Toplak M.E., Sorge G.B., Benoit A., West R.F., Stanovitch K.E. (2010), Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence. Review of Clinical Psychology, 30, 562–581.

Uka F. (2013), Assessing preschool children’s self-regulation: examining differences among parents, teachers, assessors and direct assessments. Poster prezentowany na XVI Europejskiej Konferencji Psychologii Rozwojowej, 3–7 września, Lozanna.

Zelazo P.D., Carter A., Reznick J.S., Frye D. (1997), Early development of executive function: A problem-solving framework. Review of General Psychology, 1, 198–226.

Zelazo P.D., Cunningham W.A. (2007), Executive function: Mechanisms underlying emotion regulation [w:] J.J. Gross (ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation, 135–158. New York: Guilford Press.

Zelazo P.D., Müller U. (2002), Executive function in typical and atypical development [w:] U. Goswami (ed.), Handbook of childhood cognitive development, 445–469. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Zelazo P.D., Müller U., Frye D., Marcovitch S. (2003), The development of executive function in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3).

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna
publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.