Social Policy Heritage of the UN and European Countries Related to Elderly Persons

Darko Dimovski,

Miomira Kostić

Abstrakt

In every developed social system, the prevention of discrimination and victimisation of elderly persons is one of the most important indicators of the overall status and social position of this vulnerable social group. In the specific circumstances of the social environment, the social position of elderly persons is largely determined by their specific living circumstances, their status of unemployed (retired) persons, as well as by the fact that they may be perceived as an economical, emotional and social burden to the younger generations. Yet, it is a matter of fact that all active (currently employed) persons will eventually become part of the inactive (retired) population. Elderly persons have already given their contribution to society and social progress, which entitles them to expect assistance and protection from society during the “third” and “fourth” periods of their lives. If young persons have the power to make decisions and lead society, they also have the power to exert significant impact on the social position and quality of life of the elderly, and thus contribute to improving the quality of their own future. The issue of victimisation of the elderly is usually associated with a high “dark number” The great risk of the victimisation of elderly persons depends on their personal predispositions linked to the end of the physical processes in the human body as well as the psychological changes affecting the elderly during the “third” age. In this article, the authors examine the tendencies in the regulations of this subject matter in legal documents issued by some international and regional organisations (the UN, the  EU and the CoE), which serve as examples of good practices in addressing social policy issues related to the elderly.

Dziedzictwo ONZ i państw europejskich w zakresie polityki społecznej wobec osób starszych

ABSTRACT

W każdym rozwiniętym systemie społecznym jednym z najważniejszym wskaźników ogólnego statusu i pozycji społecznej osób starszych jest zapobieganie dyskryminacji i krzywdzeniu tej defaworyzowanej grupy. W konkretnych okolicznościach środowiska społecznego pozycja osób starszych jest w dużej mierze determinowana ich warunkami bytowymi, statusem niepracującego (emeryta) oraz faktem, że mogą być one postrzegane jako ekonomiczny, emocjonalny i społeczny ciężar dla młodszych pokoleń. Faktem jest jednak, że wszystkie aktywne (obecnie zatrudnione) osoby w końcu staną się kiedyś członkami populacji nieaktywnej (zostaną emerytami). Osoby starsze wniosły już swój wkład w społeczeństwo i postęp społeczny, co sprawia, że mają prawo oczekiwać wsparcia i ochrony ze strony społeczeństwa w „trzecim” i „czwartym” okresie życia.  Jeśli młodzi mają moc podejmowania decyzji i przewodzenia społeczeństwu, mogą również wywrzeć znaczący wpływ na pozycję społeczną oraz jakość życia osób starszych, a tym samym na polepszenie jakości swej własnej przyszłości. Zazwyczaj podaje się, że liczba osób starszych będących ofiarami nadużyć jest bardzo wysoka i trudna do określenia. Ryzyko wiktymizacji zależy od osobistych predyspozycji powiązanych z końcem procesów fizycznych w ludzkim ciele oraz psychologicznymi zmianami dotykającymi osoby starsze w „trzecim wieku”. Autorzy niniejszego artykułu badają trendy regulacyjne dotyczące omawianego obszaru w dokumentach prawnych niektórych organizacji o charakterze międzynarodowym i regionalnym (ONZ, UE, KE), które służą jako dobre przykłady zajmowania się problemami socjalnymi dotyczącymi osób starszych.

Słowa kluczowe: the elderly, international documents, social policy, UN, Council of Europe, EU / osoby starsze, dokumenty międzynarodowe, polityka społeczna, ONZ, Rada Europy, UE
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