Europeanised International Law and Administrative and Constitutional Courts in EU Member States: Navigating the Global Legal Waters of Luxembourg (CJEU), Strasbourg (ECtHR) and The Hague (ICJ)

Itai Apter

Abstrakt

In present times, administrative and constitutional courts are called upon to apply international law. Approaching this task, they must perform a delicate balancing act between national law and domestic policies and international law, the latter sometimes originating from rulings of international tribunals such as the International Court of Justice. This is even more the case for courts in EU Member States, adding to the equation “Europeanised” international law as laid down by the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights.

The article analyses these challenges faced by constitutional and administrative courts in EU Member States when they need to apply public international law, international human rights law and private international law. Discussing each field, the author refers to real and hypothetical examples and case studies, highlighting potential points of conflict and convergence between the relevant case law. Utilising the findings of the analysis, the paper offers a road map for judges in EU Member States to navigate the international legal waters as they seek to achieve the most appropriate balance between domestic law, EU law and decisions of relevant regional and international tribunals.

Zeuropeizowane prawo międzynarodowe i administracyjne a trybunały konstytucyjne państw członkowskich UE: manewrując na globalnych wodach prawnych Luksemburga (Trybunał Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej), Strasburga (Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka) i Hagi (Międzynarodowy Trybunał Sprawiedliwości)

ABSTRAKT

Obecnie często wzywa się sądy administracyjne oraz trybunały konstytucyjne do stosowania prawa międzynarodowego. Wykonując to zdanie, balansują one na cienkiej granicy, szukając równowagi pomiędzy prawem i politykami krajowymi a prawem międzynarodowym, którego źródłem bywają orzeczenia trybunałów międzynarodowych takich jak Międzynarodowy Trybunał Sprawiedliwości. Taka sytuacja często pojawia się w przypadku sądów państw członkowskich UE, do czego dochodzi jeszcze „zeuropeizowane” prawo międzynarodowe tworzone przez Trybunał Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej oraz Europejski Trybunału Praw Człowieka. W artykule przeanalizowano wyzwania stające przed trybunałami konstytucyjnymi i sądami administracyjnymi w państwach członkowskich UE, które muszą stosować publiczne prawo międzynarodowe, międzynarodowe prawo praw człowieka oraz międzynarodowe prawo prywatne. Omawiając każdy z tych obszarów, autor przywołuje rzeczywiste i hipotetyczne przykłady jak też studia przypadków, podkreślając potencjalne obszary sporne oraz miejsca konwergencji w orzecznictwie. Wykorzystując swoje ustalenia, kreśli „mapę drogową” dla sędziów w państwach członkowskich UE, która ma im pomóc w manewrowaniu na międzynarodowych wodach prawnych i w wysiłkach zmierzających do zapewnienia jak najwłaściwszej równowagi pomiędzy prawem krajowym, przepisami unijnymi oraz decyzjami odpowiednich trybunałów regionalnych i międzynarodowych. 

Słowa kluczowe: international law, Court of Justice of the European Union, administrative courts, constitutional courts, European Court of Human Rights, International Court of Justice, litigation, public international law, private international law / prawo międzynarodowe, Trybunał Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej, sądy administracyjne, trybunały konstytucyjne, Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka, Międzynarodowy Trybunał Sprawiedliwości, spór sądowy, prawo międzynarodowe publiczne, prawo międzynarodowe prywatne
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