“Lawmaker Wants Cockfighting [to be] Part of Heritage”: A Critical Analysis of the 2003 Convention and the Struggle of Animal Rights Groups

Tsehaye Hailemariam

Abstrakt
This article critically examines the 2003 Convention and the struggle of animal rights groups. Throughout the analysis references will be made to the currently inscribed elements to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, and the 2003 Convention’s criteria in place. In addition, the article demonstrates the 2003 Convention’s implications for the current debates on intangible cultural heritage and animal rights through a case study from the Philippines. The questions raised are developed within the broader discourses of the political, philosophical, and legal literature relevant to the issue of animal rights and intangible cultural heritage. It is argued that intangible cultural heritage practices that maltreat animals are not sustainable, and the definition of sustainable development currently being used by the United Nations is more holistic and inclusive than understood by the designers of the 2003 Convention; it can encompass the rights of animals, not only when their abuse and mistreatment is considered as serious damage to the environment, but also when their right to exist within the environment is violated.
Słowa kluczowe: intangible cultural heritage, safeguarding, cockfighting, animal rights, human rights
References
Alvarez K., Santelices L., 8 Animal Rights Groups in the Philippines, “8List”, 15 April 2013,
http://8list.ph/site/articles/8-animal-rights-groups-in-the-philippines-197 [accessed:
8.07.2017].
Bantay Sabong, Cockfighting in the Philippines, “Rooster Eye”, 17 March 2014, http://roostereye.
net/cockfighting-in-the-philippines-3/ [accessed: 7.06.2017].
Berkaak O.A., Analyse av UNESCOs konvensjon om vern av den immaterielle kulturarven,
Den norske UNESCO-kommisjonen, Oslo 2010.
Bethge W., Cockfighting: Passion and Vice, 2002, http://www.insights-philippines.de/hahnenkengl.
htm [accessed: 17.06.2017].
Bichara A.A., Ramirez R.Y., Animal Welfare Organizations in the Philippines, “The Guidon”,
16 October 2013, http://www.theguidon.com/1112/main/2013/10/animal-welfare-
organizations-in-the-philippines [accessed: 9.06.2017].
Bonner S.J., Killing Tradition: Inside Hunting and Animal Rights Controversies, University Press
of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 2008.
Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, 17 October 2003, 2368
UNTS 1.
Dorfman E., Clash Between Cultural Heritage and Animal Welfare, 11 December 2011,
https://icomnatistethics.wordpress.com/2011/12/11/clash-between-cultural-heritage-
and-animal-welfare [accessed: 5.01.2017].
Dorfman E. (ed.), Intangible Natural Heritage: New Perspectives on Natural Objects, Routledge,
London 2011.
Dundes A., Gallus as Phallus: A Psychoanalytic Cross-Cultural Consideration of the Cockfight as
Fowl Play, in: A. Dundes (ed.), The Cockfight: A Casebook, University of Wisconsin Press,
Madison, WI 1994.
Dundes A. (ed.), The Cockfight: A Casebook, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
WI 1994.
Eisenman S., The Cry of Nature: Art and the Making of Animal Rights, Reaktion Books, London
2013.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Cockfighting, https://www.britannica.com/sports/cockfighting
[accessed: 14.01.2017].
ESDAW, UNESCO – Universal Declaration of Animal Rights 17-10-1978, http://www.esdaw.eu/
unesco.html [accessed: 11.01.2017].
Garner R., Defending Animal Rights, “Parliamentary Affairs” 1998, Vol. 51(3).
Geertz C., The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, Basic Books, New York 1973.
Grau A., Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Dreaming, in: M.N. Mohammad Anis, E. I. Dunin,
and A. v. B. Wharton (eds.), Transmitting Dance as Cultural Heritage & Dance and Religion:
Proceedings ofthe 25th Symposium of the ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology, ICTM
Study Group on Ethnochoreology, Kuala Lumpur 2009.
Guggenheim S., Cock or Bull: Cockfighting, Social Structure, and Political Commentary in the
Philippines, in: A. Dundes (ed.), The Cockfight: A Casebook, University of Wisconsin
Press, Madison, WI 1994.
House of Representatives (the Philippines), Solon Seeks to Declare Cockfighting as Part of National
Cultural Heritage, 21 March 2010, http://www.congress.gov.ph/press/details.
php?pressid=4174 [accessed: 7.01.2017].
IFAW, Photography Contest Ignores Cruel Reality of Falconry, 27 July 2016, http://www.ifaw.
org/united-states/news/photography-contest-ignores-cruel-reality-falconry [accessed:
4.01.2017].
International Association for Falconry and Conservation of Birds of Prey, UNESCO Recognises
Falconry, 16 November 2010, http://www.danskfalkejagtklub.dk/iaf_press_unesco.pdf
[accessed: 16.01.2017].
Ivey B., Issues in Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2004, http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/
pub126/ivey.html [accessed: 6.01.2017].
KBK, Lawmaker Wants Cockfighting Part of RP Heritage, “GMA News”, 21 March 2010, http://
www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/186680/hashtag/lawmaker-wants-cockfighting-
part-of-rp-heritage [accessed: 11.01.2017].
Keitumetse S., UNESCO 2003 Convention on Intangible Heritage: Practical Implications for Heritage
Management Approaches in Africa, “The South African Archaeological Bulletin”
2006, Vol. 61(184).
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett B., Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production, “Museum International”
2004, Vol. 56(1-2).
Kurin R., Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in the 2003 UNESCO Convention: A Critical
Appraisal, “Museum International” 2004, Vol. 56(1-2).
Miacimu, UNESCO Intangible Heritage or Animal Cruelty? Kazakh Eagle Hunting in Bayan Ulgii,
Western Mongolia, 15 October 2012, https://miacimu.wordpress.com/2012/10/15/
unesco-intangible-heritage-or-animal-cruelty-kazakh-eagle-hunting-in-bayan-ulgii-
western-mongolia/ [accessed: 4.01.2017].
Neumann J.-M., The Universal Declaration of Animal Rights or the Creation of a New Equilibrium
Between Species, “Animal Law Review” 2012, Vol. 19(1).
PAWS, PAWS History, http://www.paws.org.ph/paws-history.html [accessed: 10.06.2017].
PAWS, Stop Bill that Seeks to Declare Cockfighting as Part of our National Cultural Heritage,
29 March 2010, http://www.paws.org.ph/no-to-cockfights-as-cultural-heritage.html
[accessed: 11.01.2017].
Presidential Decree No. 449, 9 May 1974, http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/presdecs/
pd1974/pd_449_1974.html [accessed: 12.01.2017].
PSPCA, General Information, http://www.geocities.ws/philspca/geninfo.html [accessed:
9.06.2017].
Regan T., The Case for Animal Rights, 2nd edn., University of California Press, Berkeley –
Los Angeles 2004.
Regan T., The Case for Animal Rights, in: P. Singer (ed.), In Defence of Animals, Blackwell,
Oxford 1985.
The Humane Society of the United States, Cockfighting Fact Sheet, http://www.humanesociety.
org/issues/cockfighting/facts/cockfighting_fact_sheet.html [accessed:
11.01.2017].
Tichelar M., The History of Opposition to Blood Sports in Twentieth Century England: Hunting
at Bay, Routledge, London 2016.
UNESCO, Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October
2003, http://www.unesco.org/eri/la/convention.asp?KO=17116&language=E [accessed:
6.01.2017].
UNESCO, Falconry, a Living Human Heritage, http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/falconry-
a-living-human-heritage-01209 [accessed: 14.01.2017].
United Nations, The Sustainable Development Agenda, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
development-agenda/ [accessed: 10.11.2017].
VICE Staff, Cockfighting in the Philippines, “Vice”, 27 February 2015, https://www.vice.com/
en_uk/article/ppmjq9/cockfighting-in-the-philippines-015 [accessed: 10.06.2017].

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja papierowa.