The European Union Legal Framework and the Fight against the Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Property Coming from Situations of Armed Conflict

Sabrina Urbinati

Abstrakt

Since the beginning of the Iraqi and Syrian conflicts, the illicit trafficking of their cultural property has increased exponentially. Beside States, several international organizations are engaged in the fight against this illicit trafficking, such as the United Nations, UNESCO, and the European Union (EU). According to the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, the EU has adopted Council Regulation No. 1210/2003 concerning certain specific restrictions on economic and financial relations with Iraq, and Council Regulation No. 36/2012 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria, both of which address issues related to the illicit trafficking of cultural property. Beside these Regulations, the relevant existing EU legal framework comprises some other instruments: some articles of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the free movement of goods, and Council Regulation No. 116/2009 on the export of cultural goods. Finally, this legal framework is about to be complemented by a new Regulation on the introduction and the import of cultural goods adopted, in first reading, by the EU Parliament on 12 March 2019. The main aim of this article is an analysis of the EU legal framework in order to assess whether it can effectively contribute to the fight against the illicit trafficking in cultural property coming from situations of armed conflicts.

Słowa kluczowe: illicit trafficking, cultural property, European Union, import, export, Syria, Iraq, armed conflict
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