The Old Summer Palace and the Rhetoric of National Treasures

Derek Gillman

Abstrakt

Among the European missionary groups in China, only the Jesuits established themselves firmly at court, first in the late Ming and then under the succeeding Qing dynasty. The Milanese painter and lay brother Giuseppe Castiglione (Ch. Lang Shining) served three successive Manchu emperors, designing a suite of late Baroque buildings for the Yuanmingyuan, an imperial palace to the north-west of Beijing. When the palace was looted and burned during the Second Opium War, a set of bronze zodiacal water spouts designed by Castiglione disappeared from Beijing, only to re-appear publicly at auction during the last 30 years. Ai Weiwei has replicated the set, both in bronze and gilt bronze, questioning its Chinese pedigree and, more broadly, whether objects commissioned by an occupying power can be regarded as national treasures, an issue especially relevant to China since large parts of the country were under foreign rule for almost a third of its imperial history. Castiglione  s now regarded in China and Taiwan as a highly significant figure in Chinese painting history.

Słowa kluczowe: China, Castiglione, looting, Ai Weiwei, national treasure
References

Bowlby C., The Palace of Shame that Makes China Angry, “BBC Magazine”, 2 February 2015.

Branigan T., Jackie Chan Wades into Row over Looted Chinese Relics, “The Guardian”, 26 February 2009.

Broudehoux A.-M., The Making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing, Routledge, New York 2004.

Dutra M. L., Sir, How Much is that Ming Vase in the Window? Protecting Cultural Relics in the People’s Republic of China, “Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal” 2004, Vol. 5.

Eakin H., The Affair of the Chinese Bronze Heads, “The New York Review of Books”, 14 May 2009.

Eckholm E., Landler M., State Bidder Buys Relics for China, “The New York Times”, 3 May 2000.

Gang Z., Reinventing China: Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century, “Modern China” 2006, Vol. 32(3).

Gillman D., General Munthe’s Chinese Buddhist Sculpture: An Embarrassment of Riches?, “The Buddhist Forum” 1996, Vol. 4.

Gillman D., Heritage, Value and Vulnerability (遗产, 价值与脆弱性), “Yichan” (遗产) 2019, Vol. 1(1).

Gillman D., The Idea of Cultural Heritage, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010.

Guolong L., The Emergence of ‘Cultural Heritage’ in Modern China: A Historical and Legal Perspective, in: A. Matsude, L. Mengoni, Reconsidering Cultural Heritage in East Asia, Ubiquity Press, London 2016.

Hickley C., Nigeria Plans Museum for Art Looted from Benin, “The Art Newspaper”, 22 October 2018.

ligraphic inscriptions which, together with his many large seals, he liberally applied to major works in the imperial collection, including Bathing Horses.

Jia M., Old Palace Columns Coming Home, “China Daily”, 12 February 2014.

Lau T., The Grading of Cultural Relics in Chinese Law, “International Journal of Cultural Property” 2011, Vol. 18(1).

Lee H., The Ruins of Yuanmingyuan, in: M. A. Matten (ed.), Places of Memory in Modern China: History, Politics and Identity, Brill, Leiden 2012.

Liu Z., The Case for Repatriating China’s Cultural Objects, Springer, Singapore 2016.

McCausland S., Zhao Mengfu: Calligraphy and Painting for Khubilai’s China, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong 2011.

McDonald M., Vogel C., Twist in Sale of Relics Has China Winking, “The New York Times”, 2 March 2009.

Musillo M., Reconciling Two Careers: The Jesuit Memoir of Giuseppe Castiglione Lay Brother and Qing Imperial Painter, “Eighteenth-Century Studies” 2008, Vol. 42(1).

Pearce N., From the Summer Palace 1860: Provenance and Politics, in: L. Tythacott (ed.), Collecting and Displaying China’s “Summer Palace” in the West: The Yuanmingyuan in Britain and France, Routledge, New York – London 2018.

Rabreau D., Paupe M.-R., Un style original ou les “goûts réunis”, in: P. Guillemin (ed.), Le Yuanmingyuan: jeux d’eau et palais européens du XVIIIe siècle à la cour de Chine, A.D.P.F., Paris 1987.

Rawski E. S., Rawson J. (eds.), China: The Three Emperors, 1662-1795, Royal Academy of Arts, London 2005.

Rogers H., Lee S. E., Masterworks of Ming and Qing Painting from the Forbidden City, International Arts Council, Lansdale 1988.

Sandholtz W., Plunder, Restitution, and International Law, “International Journal of Cultural Property” 2010, Vol. 17(2).

Sullivan M., The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art. From the Sixteenth Century to the Present Day, Thames and Hudson; New York Graphic Society, London 1973.

Tythacott L., The Yuanmingyuan and Its Objects, in: L. Tythacott (ed.), Collecting and Displaying China’s “Summer Palace” in the West: The Yuanmingyuan in Britain and France, Routledge, New York – London 2018.

Wong E., Ai Weiwei’s Animal Heads Offer Critique of Chinese Nationalism, “The New York Times”, 10 August 2016.

Wong Y., A Paradise Lost: The Imperial Garden Yuanmingyuan, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 2001.

Zhang P., One Hundred Horses, “Shanghai Daily”, 15 May 2016.

Zhong H., China, Cultural Heritage, and International Law, Routledge, New York 2018.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja papierowa.