TUNGUSIC HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS AND THE BUYLA (a.k.a. NAGYSZENTMIKLÓS) INSCRIPTION

José Andrés Alonso de la Fuente

Abstrakt
This paper presents a proper linguistic assessment of the Tungusic reading of the Buyla inscription, as proposed by the late Eugene Helimski (1950–2007) who believed that one of the languages spoken by the European Avars was Tungusic. The main conclusion is that the Tungusic reading should be rejected. This outcome partly agrees with the communis opinio whereby the Buyla inscription hides a(n unidentified so far) Turkic language.
Słowa kluczowe: etymology, philology, medieval history of Asia, historical and comparative linguistics, Tungusic, Hungarian, Avars, migration
References

Alemany A. 2009. From Central Asia to the Balkans: the Title *ču(b)-pān. – Allison Ch. / Joisten-Pruschke A. / Wendtland A. (eds.), From Daēnā to Dîn: Religion, Kultur und Sprache in der iranischen Welt. Festschrift für Philip Kreyenbroek zum 60. Geburtstag. Wiesbaden: 3–12.

Alonso de la Fuente J.A. 2011a. Tense, Voice and Aktionsart in Tungusic. Another Case of “Analysis to Synthesis”?. Wiesbaden.

Alonso de la Fuente J.A. 2011b. Venjukov’s [1858] 1862/1868 Nanai materials. – Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 93: 11–35.

Atknine V. 1997. The Evenki Language from the Yenisei to Sakhalin. – Northern Minority Languages: Problems of Survival. Senri Ethnological Studies 44: 109–121.

Avrorin B.A. / Boldyrev B.V. 2001. Grammatika oročskogo jazyka. Novosibirsk.

Avrorin V.A. 1959. Grammatika nanajskogo jazyka, vol. 1: Fonetičeskoe vvedenie i morfologija imennyx častej reči. Moskva / Leningrad.

Avrorin V.A. 1961. Grammatika nanajskogo jazyka, vol. 2: Morfologija glagol’nyx i narečnyx častej reči, meždometij, služebnyx slov i častic. Moskva / Leningrad.

Avrorin V.A. 1981. Sintaksičeskie issledovanija po nanajskomu jazyku. Leningrad.

Beckwith C.I. 2009. Empires of the Silk Road. A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton / Oxford.

Benzing J. 1953. Remarques sur les langues tongouses et leurs relations avec les autres langues dites “altaiques”. – Ural-altaische Jahrbücher 25.1–2: 109–118.

Boldyrev B.V. 1976. Kategorija kosvennoj prinadležnosti v tunguso-man’čžurskix jazykax. Moskva.

Boldyrev B.V. 1987. Slovoobrazovanie imen suščestvitel’nyx v tunguso-man’čžurskix jazykax v sravnitel’no-istoričeskom osveščenii. Novosibirsk.

Bulatova N. / Grenoble L. 1999. Evenki. München.

Castrén M.A. 1856. Grundzüge einer tungusischen Sprachlehre nebst kurzem Wörterverzeichniss. St. Petersburg.

Cincius V.I. 1982. Negidal’skij jazyk. Issledovanija i materialy. Leningrad.

Clauson G. 1972. An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford.

Conon de la Gabelentz H. 1832. Élémens de la grammaire mandchoue. Altenbourg.

Doerfer G. 1967. Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen, Band 3: Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen (ǧīm bis kāf). Wiesbaden.

Doerfer G. 1977. Ist Kur-Urmiisch ein nanaischer Dialekt?. – Decsy Gy. / Dimov-Bo­goev Ch.D. (eds.), Eurasia nostratica. Festschrift für K.H. Menges. Wies­baden, vol. 1: 51–63.

Doerfer G. 1978. Classification Problems of Tungus. – Weiers M. (ed.), Tungusica. Beiträge zur nordasiatischen Kulturgeschichte. Wiesbaden: 1–26.

Doerfer G. 1985. Mongolo-Tungusica. Wiesbaden.

EEW = Doerfer G. 2004. Etymologisch-ethnologisches Wörterbuch tungusischer Dialekte. Unter Mitwirkung von M. Knüppel. Hildesheim.

Erdal M. 1988. The Turkic Nagy-Szent-Miklós Inscription in Greek Letters. – Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42.2–3: 221–234.

Erdal M. 2007. The Khazar Language. – Golden P. / Ben-Shammai H. / Róna-Tas A. (eds.), The World of the Khazars. Leiden / Boston: 75–108.

Futaky I. 2001. Nyelvörténeti vizsgálatok a Kárpát-medencei avar-magyar kapcso­latok kérdéséhez. Budapest.

Göbl R. / Róna-Tas A. 1995. Die Inschriften des Schatzes von Nagy-szentmiklós. Eine paläographische Dokumentation. Wien.

Golden P. 1992. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden.

Gorelova L.M. 2002. Manchu Grammar. Leiden / Boston / Köln.

Gould S.J. 1980. The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History. New York / London.

Helimski E. = Xelimskij E. 2000a. Jazyk(i) Avarov: Tunguso-man’čžurskij aspekt. – Folia Orientalia 36 (= Studia in honorem Stanislai Stachowski dicata): 135–148.

Helimski E. 2000b. On Probable Tungus-Manchurian Origin of the Buyla Inscription from Nagy-Szentmiklós (Preliminary Communication). – Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 5: 43–56.

Helimski E. = Xelimskij E. 2003. Tunguso-man’čžurskij jazykovoj komponent v avarskom kaganate i slavjanskaja ètimologija (Materialy k dokladu na XIII Mež­du­narodnom sъezde slavistov, Ljubljana, 15–21 avgusta 2003). Hamburg.

Helimski E. 2004. Die Sprache(n) der Awaren: Die mandschu-tungusische Alternative. – Naeher C. (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies (Bonn, August 28 – September 1, 2000), vol. 2: Trends in Tungusic and Siberian Linguistics. Wiesbaden: 59–72.

Hú Zēngyì, Cháokè. 1986. Èwēnkèyǔ jiǎn zhì. Běijīng.

Janhunen J. 1985. The Tungus People and the Conquest of Siberia. – Jarring G. / Rosén S. (eds.), Altaistic Studies. Papers Presented at the 25th Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference (Uppsala 1983). Stockholm: 73–77.

Janhunen J. 1987. Towards a unified phonological transcription of the Siberian languages. – Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 81: 151–174.

Janhunen J. 1996. Manchuria. An Ethnic History. Helsinki.

Janhunen J. 2004. From Choson to Jucher: On the Possibilities of Ethnonymic Continuity in Greater Manchuria. – Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 9: 67–76.

Janhunen J. 2009. Eugene Helimski (1950–2007). – Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen 60.1–3: 364–371.

Janhunen J. 2012. The Expansion of Tungusic as an Ethnic and Linguistic Process. – Malchukov A. / Whaley L. (eds.), Recent Advances in Tungusic Linguistics. Wiesbaden: 5–16.

Janhunen J. 2013. The Tungusic Languages: A History of Contacts. – Kim J. / Ko D. (eds.), Current Trends in Altaic Linguistics. A festschrift for Professor Emeritus Seong Baeg-in on his 80th Birthday. Seoul: 18–60.

Kałużyński S. 1982. Einige tungusische Lehnwörter im Jakutischen. – Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 36.1–3: 261–269.

Kara Gy. 2002. Review of Futaky 2001. – Magyar Nyelv 98: 491–496.

Kazama S. 2012. Designative in Tungusic languages. – Malchukov A. / Whaley L. (eds.), Recent Advances in Tungusic Linguistics. Wiesbaden: 123–152.

Kiyose G.N. 1977. Study of the Jurchen Language and Script. Kyoto.

Knüppel M. 2013. Professor István Futaky (12.5.1926–21.1.2013) als Tungusologe. – Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis 130: 191–198.

Kőhalmi-Uray C. 2004. The Myth of Nishan Shaman. – Hoppál M. (ed.), Rediscovery of Shamanic Heritage. Budapest: 113–124.

Konstantinova O.A. 1964. Evenkijskij jazyk. Fonetika. Morfologija. Moskva / Leningrad.

Kotvičъ W. 1909. Materialy dlja izučenia tungusskixъ narěčij. I. Obrazcy jazyka sungarijskixъ gol’dovъ. – Živaja Starina 18.2–3: 206–218.

Kovács T. / Garam É. (eds.) 2001. The Gold of the Avars. The Nagyszentmiklós Treasure. Catalogue of the Exhibition. Budapest

Larsen T.W. 2007. Instrumental Noun Phrases and Unmarked Objects in Classical Manchu. – Wadley S. / Naeher C. (eds.), Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Manchu Studies, vol. 2: Studies in Manchu Linguistics. Wiesbaden: 21–41.

Ligeti L. 1953. Le problème de l’ethnogenèse des samaghirs. – Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 3.1–2: 33–44.

Malchukov A. / Nedjalkov I. 2010. Ditransitive Constructions in Tungusic Languages. – Malchukov A. / Haspelmath M. / Comrie B. (eds.), Studies in Ditransitive Constructions. A Comparative Handbook. Berlin / New York: 318–351.

Menges K.H. 1952. Zur einigen Problemen der tungusischen Grammatik. – Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 24.1: 112–121.

Miller R.A. 1994. The Original Geographic Distribution of the Tungus Languages. – Aronson H.I. (ed.), Non-Slavic languages of the USSR. Papers from the Fourth Conference. Columbus: 272–297.

Myl’nikova K.M. / Cincius V.I. 1931. Materialy po issledevaniju negidal’skogo jazyka. – Tunguskij sbornik 1: 107–218.

Nikolaeva I. / Tolskaya M. 2001. A Grammar of Udihe. Berlin.

Novikova K.A. 1960. Očerki dialektov èvenskogo jazyka. Ol’skij govor, čast’ 1. Moskva / Leningrad.

Ozoliņa L. 1995. Present day linguistic situation among the Val Oroks (Uilta) of Eastern Sakhalin. – Linguistic and Oriental Studies from Poznań 2: 91–104.

Ozolinja L.B. 2001. Oroksko-russkij slovar’. Novosibirsk.

Pekarskij E.K. 19592Slovar’ jakutskogo jazyka. Jakutsk.

Petrova T.I. 1967. Jazyk orokov (ul’ta). Leningrad.

Pohl W. 2002. Die Awaren. Ein Steppenvolk in Mitteleuropa 567–822 n.Chr. München.

Poppe N.N. 1931. Materialy po solonskomu jazyku. Leningrad.

Poppe N. 1966. On Some Ancient Mongolian Loan-words in Tungus. – Central Asiatic Journal 11: 187–198.

Poppe N. 1972. On Some Mongolian Loan Words in Evenki. – Central Asiatic Journal 16: 95–103.

Poppe N. 1977. The Altaic Plural Suffix -*t. – Studia Orientalia 47: 165–174.

Poppe N. 1987. Introduction to Mongolian Comparative Studies. Helsinki.

Poppe N. 20062Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden.

Pritsak O. 2006. The Turkic Etymology of the Word Qazaq ‘Cossack’. – Harvard Ukrainian Studies 28.1–4: 237–243.

Pulleyblank E.G. 1991. Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin. Vancouver.

Putinceva A.P. 1954. Morfologija govora gorinskix nanaj. Leningrad.

Romanova A.V. / Myreeva A.N. / Baraškov P.P. 1975. Vzaimovlijanie èvenkijskogo i jakutskogo jazykov. Leningrad.

Róna-Tas A. / Berta Á. 2011. West Old Turkic. Turkic Loanwords in Hungarian, 2 vols. [with the assistance of L. Károly]. Wiesbaden.

Róna-Tas A. 1999. Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Budapest.

Róna-Tas A. 2001. The Inscriptions of the Nagyszentmiklós Treasure. – Ko­vács T. / Garam É. (eds.), The Gold of the Avars. The Nagyszentmiklós Treas­ure. Catalogue of the Exhibition. Budapest: 120–129.

Róna-Tas A. 2003. Börtön szavunk és az avar-magyar kapcsolatok. – Nyelvtudományi Közlemények 100: 219–225.

Rozycki W. 1994. Mongol Elements in Manchu. Bloomington.

Schmidt P.P. 1923. The Language of the Negidals. – Acta Universitatis Latviensis 5: 3–38.

Schuessler A. 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu

Sem L.I. 1976. Očerk dialektov nanajskogo jazyka. Bikinskij (Ussurijskij) dialekt. Leningrad.

Sevortjan È., ed. 1978. Ètimologičeskij slovar’ tjurkskix jazykov, vol. 2 “B”. Moskva.

Shirokogoroff S.M. 1924. Social Organization of the Manchus. A Study of the Manchu Clan Organization. Shanghai.

Sinor D. 1952. On Some Ural-Altaic Plural Suffixes. – Asia Major (NS) 2: 203–230.

SS = Cincius V.I., ed. 1975–1977. Sravnitel’nyj slovar’ tunguso-man’čžurskix jazykov, vol. 2. Leningrad.

Stachowski M. 2004. The origin of the European word for sabre. – Studia Ety­mologica Cracoviensia 9: 133–141.

Stachowski M. 2005. Uwagi o zapożyczeniach ałtajskich wjęzyku prasło­wiań­skim i kwestie pokrewne. – Siemieniec-Gołaś E. / Pomorska M. (eds.), Turks and Non-Turks Studies on the History of Linguistic and Cultural Contacts. Special Issue Presented to Professor Stanisław Stachowski to His Seventy Fifth Birthday (= Studia Turcologica Cracoviensia 10). Kraków: 437–454.

Sunik O.P. 1958. Kur-Urmijskij dialekt. Issledovanija i materialy po nanajskomu jazyku. Leningrad.

Sunik O.P. 1982. Suščestvitel’noe v tunguso-man’čžurskix jazykax. Leningrad.

Sunik O.P. 1985. Ul’čskij jazyk. Issledovanija i materialy. Leningrad.

Szalontai Cs. / Károly L. 2013. Runiform Fragments of the Late Avar Period from Hungary. – Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66.4: 365–396.

Tamura K. 1990. Manshū-go no taikaku ni okeru mokuteki-go no gentei-shō. – Chūkyō daigaku kyōyō ronsō 31.2: 579–601.

TSVG = Benzing J. 1956. Die tungusischen Sprachen. Versuch einer vergleichenden Grammatik. Wiesbaden.

Vasilevič G.M., ed. 1936. Sbornik materialov po èvenkijskomu (tungusskomu) fol’kloru. Leningrad.

Vasilevič G.M. 1948. Očerki dialektov èvenkijskogo /tungusskogo/ jazyka. Leningrad.

Vasilevič G.M. 1969. Èvenki. Istoriko-ètnografičeskie očerki (XVIII–načalo XX v.). Leningrad.

Vasilevič G.M. 1974. Antroponimy u narodov ural’skoj i altajskoj semej, rasselennyx v Sibiri (opyt kartografirovanija). – Bruk S.I. / Borodina M.A. (eds.), Problemy kartografirovanija v jazykoznanii i ètnografii. Leningrad: 296–302.

Vovin A. 2007. Once again on the Etymology of the Title qaγan. – Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 12: 177–187.

Walravens H. 1992. Die frühesten goldischen Texte. Faksimile-Nachdruck einiger Übersetzungen von Prokopij Protodiakonov. Mit einem Essay von Władysław Kotwicz über die Erforschung der goldischen (Nanai-)Sprache. Berlin.

Wǔtǐ = Corff O. et alii. 2013. Auf kaiserlichen Befehl erstelltes Wörterbuch des Manjurischen in fünf Sprachen, 2 vols. Wiesbaden.

Xasanova M.M. / Pevnov A.M. 2003. Mify i skazki negidal’cev. Suita.

Zakharov I. 20102A Grammar of Manchu / Grammatika man’čžurskago jazyka. Folkestone [Sanktpeterburgъ].

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.