Between Haskalah and Zionism. The Example of the Jewish Community of Brody 

Dominika Rank

Abstrakt
In Galicia the propagation of Jewish diaspora nationalism in the early phase of this movement was welcomed by liberal Jewish organizations as just another step towards the ideals of Enlightenment. However, while Zionism gradually emerged as a separate political movement in Galicia, in Brody remained just a part of the cultural Enlightenment process of the Haskalah. In Lviv and other Galician towns, the same period was characterized by the intense development of Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish national ideologies—a markedly different situation compared to the pro-Austrian, centrist Brody, with its established Jewish economic elite with Austrian liberal supra-national identity. Owing to the dominant role of Jews in the economic, cultural and to some degree political life of the city, the local population did not encounter significant levels of anti-Semitism. This absence of a group that would symbolize the “alien, hostile other”—the absence of anti-Semitism—meant that the Zionism could not establish itself as a saviour and defender of the Jews in 19th century Brody. As such, Zionism was not regarded as a serious alternative to the Austrian liberal ideology espoused by the local population.
The situation was changed with the establishment of universal suffrage in the Austrian Empire and the accompanying development of mass election campaigns contributed to the population’s politicization and the formation of a national identity in both Brody and throughout Galicia. Together with the use of modern political campaign methods and the activities of some members of the Jewish community, Zionism in Brody began to attract more active and conscious supporters.
Słowa kluczowe: Brody, Haskalah, Zionism, Galicia, 19th century
References

Jewish newspapers

Der Israelit 1896, no. 10.

Ivri Anochi 1865, no. 1; 1885, no. 3.

Jedność, Organ Żydów Polskich 1907, no. 15; 1909, no. 4.

Jüdische Zeitung, 2 (1908): 17.

Moriah 1904, no. 5; 1905, no. 11; 1908, no. 1-30.

Der Neuezeit 1862, no. 17.

Der Neuezeit 1867, no. 17.

Wschód 1902, no. 105.

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Wschód 1904, no. 18.

Wschód 1905, no. 6.

 

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Internet sources

Menda-Levy, O. (2010), Schorr, Yehoshu‘Heshel, YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Schorr_Yehoshua_Heshel [accessed 22 September 2017].

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