Human Rights Violations in Post-Conflict Areas as a Threat to Peace and Security: UN Mission in Kosovo

Judita Krasniqi

Abstrakt

This paper examines the concept of human rights and security in post-conflict areas in the context of international missions, the process of building a human rights, based on security, and the securement of sustainable peace aims. In Kosovo, the responsibility of the international community to respect human rights have resulted in violations that has seriously put peace and security at risk between Kosovan ethnic groups after 1999. Thus, this article explains how human rights violations continued to be a security threat for Kosovo for two decades until 2008.

Słowa kluczowe: human rights, security, international missions, post-conflict areas, Kosovo
References

Abiri E. (2006), Let’s Talk! – Human Rights meet Peace and Security, SIDA, http://www.sida.se/contentassets/0d47da7df3a748f29fb4560ef30df989/lets-talk---human-rights-meet-peace-and-security_710.pdf

Amnesty International (2000), A Broken Circle (Update): “Disappeared” and abducted in Kosovo province, EUR 70/37/00, Amnesty International, https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/EUR70/037/2000/en/

Amnesty International (2006), United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK): Briefing to the Human Rights Committee: 87th Session, July 2006, EUR 70/007/2006,  Amnesty International, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/UNK/INT_CCPR_NGO_UNK_87_10245_E.pdf [30.10.2018]

Amnesty International (2008), Kosovo (Serbia) The Challenge to Fix a Failed UN Justice System, EUR 70/001/2008, Amnesty International Publications, https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/EUR70/001/2008/en/ [31.10.2018]

Annan K. (1997), Strengthening United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights: Prospects and Priorities, “Harvard Human Rights Journal” Vol. 10, No. 1

The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (2008a), Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo (17 February 2008), Pristina, https://www.rks-gov.net/EN/f40/republic-of-kosovo/constitution

The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (2008b), Declaration of Independence, Pristi-na, https://www.assembly-kosova.org/common/docs/Dek_Pav_e.pdf

Bajçinca E. (2004), Early Warning Report Kosovo, USAID/UNDP/Riinvest, https://doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.1.2812.6486

Benedek W. (2004), Final Status of Kosovo: The Role of Human Rights and Minority Rights, “Chicago-Kent Law Review” Vol.  80 (Symposium: Final Status for Kosovo: Untying the Gordian Knot), https://scholarship.kentlaw.iit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3479&context=cklawreview [32.10.2018]

Cassese A. (1990), Human rights in a changing world, Polity Press, Cambridge

Chinkin C. (2008), The Protection Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights Post-Conflict, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva

Friedrich J. (2005), UNMIK in Kosovo: Struggling with Uncertainty, “Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online” Vol. 9, No. 1

Halili D. (2017), Rights of War Related Sexual Violence Survivors Demand-ed, “Kosovotwopointzero”, http://kosovotwopointzero.com/en/rights-war-related-sexual-violence-survivors-demanded/ [31.10.2018]

Hopgood S. (2013), The Endtimes of Human Rights, Cornell University Press, New York

Human Rights Watch (2000), Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of “ethnic cleansing”, Human Rights Watch Publications, https://www.hrw.org/report/2000/03/01/kosovo-rape-weapon-ethnic-cleansing

International Crisis Group (2007), KOSOVO: NO GOOD ALTERNATIVES TO THE AHTISAARI PLAN, Europe Report No. 182, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/464969da2.pdf [31.10.2018]

Jarvinen T. (2004), Human Rights and Post-Conflict Transitional Justice in East Timor, UPI Working Papers 47, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, https://www.fiia.fi/en/publication/human-rights-and-post-conflict-transitional-justice-in-east-timor [30.10.2018]

OSCE/ODIHR (1999), Kosovo as Seen as Told: an analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission October 1998 to June 1999, 2nd ed. Warsaw

Lambourne W. (2000), Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, “Security Dialogue” Vol. 31 (Peace, Conflict and Development 4), https://www.bradford.ac.uk/social-sciences/peace-conflict-and-development/issue-4/PostConflictPeacebuilding.pdf [31.10.2018]

Lezova K. (2018), The Influence of Domestic Political Factors on Foreign Policy Formation in an EU Member State: The Case of Slovakia and the Kosovo Status Process, University of London, London

Marko J., Harzl B. (2009), Preface, “Review of Central and East European Law” Vol.  34, No. 4

McAdam D., McCarthy J.D., Zald M.N. (2008), Comparative perspectives on social movements, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge

Na’im A. (1995), Human rights in cross-cultural perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia

Ombudsman Institution in Kosovo (2004), Fourth Annual Report 2003-2004 addressed to The Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ombudsman Institution, Prishtina, http://www.csotan.org/textes/Kosovo%20Ombudsman%20rep2004.pdf

Ombudsman Institution in Kosovo (2002), Second Annual Report 2001-2002 addressed to The Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ombudsman Institution, Prishtina

Perriello T., Wierda M. (2006), Lessons from the Deployment of International Judges and Prosecutors in Kosovo, The International Center for Transitional Justice, New York, https://www.ictj.org/publication/lessons-deployment-international-judges-and-prosecutors-kosovo

Perritt J. (2011), The Road to Independence for Kosovo, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Roth K., Richardson S., Long S., Becker J., Hall J. (2008), World report 2008, Human Rights Watch, New York

Spence R. (2001), Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Who Determines the Peace, [in:] Rethinking Humanitarianism: Conference Proceedings, (Eds.) Bleiker R., Evans-Kent B., University of Queensland, St Lucia

United Nations (1986), Declaration on the Right to Development, A/RES/41/128, http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/41/a41r128.htm

UN General Assembly (1948), Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 Decem-ber, 217 A (III)

United Nations Security Council (1999b), Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, 12 Ju-ly, S/1999/779,  http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6af0810.html [30.10.2018]

United Nations Security Council (1999a), Resolution 1244 on the situation relating Kosovo, S/RES/1244, https://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/96353.2458990812.html

United Nations Secretary-General (1992), An Agenda for Peace: Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, and peace-keeping, UN Documents Gathering a body of global agreements, A/47/277

UNMIK (1999), Regulation No. 1999/24 on the Law Applicable in Kosovo, UN-MIK/REG/1999/24, http://www.unmikonline.org/regulations/1999/re99_24.pdf

Valters C., Rabinowitz G., Denney L. (2014), Security in post-conflict contexts: What counts as progress and what drives it?, Overseas Development Progress Working Paper, London, https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8915.pdf [30.10.2018]

Walt S. (1991), The renaissance of security studies, “International Studies Quarterly” Vol. 35, No. 2

Waltz K. (1979), Theory of international politics, McGraw-Hill, New York

Zeri.info (2018), Policia konfirmon se njëri nga përdhunuesit e Vasfije Krasniqit ishte polic i Kosovës për 16 vjet, http://zeri.info/kronika/221388/policia-konfirmon-se-njeri-nga-perdhunuesit-e-vasfije-krasniqit-ishte-polic-i-kosoves-per-16-vjet/ [31.10. 2018]

Półrocznik interdyscyplinarny

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w Internecie. Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.