THE HĨ AND HA GRAMS IN TJWAO (KHOE) –THE MODEL OF SITUATED MAPS

Alexander Andrason,

Admire Phiri

Abstrakt

The present paper offers an analysis of the TAM semantics of the HĨ and the HA gram(matical construction)s in Tjwao within the cognitive and grammaticalization-based model of dynamic maps and streams. The authors show that, albeit similar, the ranges of meanings of the two grams differ. The grams share the senses of experiential present perfect, definite past, stative and non-stative present. However, the senses of narrative remote past and pluperfect are typical of HĨ, while the senses of inclusive and resultative present perfect are only compatible with HA. When used as presents, HA is limited to affirmative contexts, whereas HĨ is restricted to negative contexts. The authors additionally demonstrate that the polysemy of each gram can be mapped by means of two sub-paths of the resultative path, i.e. the anterior and simultaneous paths. The two grams may therefore be located on the same stream on which HĨ occupies a more advanced position than HA, being thus a chronologically earlier construction. This grammaticalization-based entanglement of HĨ and HA is consistent with the situation found in other Khoe languages

Słowa kluczowe: TAM, grammaticalization, semantic maps, cognitive linguistics, Khoe-Kwadi
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