Robinson Jeffers’s Inhumanism vs. Tao’s Unconcern

Jarosław Zawadzki

Abstrakt

The aim of this paper is to show and explain the similarities that can be identifi ed between the early Taoists philosophy of Lao-Chuang and the poetry of the American poet Robinson Jeff ers along with his doctrine of inhumanism. In the books of Tao Te Ching and Chuang Tzŭ, Tao has been depicted as a natural force (or even nature itself) that creates but then leaves its creation alone for good or bad. A Taoist sage accepts such natural manifestations of violence as death or suff ering, for it is the way things work in the world. Jeff ers’s attitude toward nature and society resembles that of Tao and Taoist sages. Jeff ers, however, goes a step further: not only does he accept violence and suff ering as part and parcel of life, but he praises them, as a classical poet would praise beauty and love. 

Słowa kluczowe: Robison Jeff ers, inhumanism, Tao, Taoism, violence
References
Boyers R., A Sovereign Voice: The Poetry of Robinson Jeffers, “The Sewanee Review” 1969, No. 77(3). 
Chuang Tzŭ [庄子], Chuang Tzŭ Ch’ien-chu [庄子浅注] (Chuang Tzŭ with simple annotations), ed. Ts’ao Ch’u-Chi [曹基], Beijing [北京] 2007. 
Jeffers R., The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: 1920-1928, ed. T. Hunt, Vol. 1, Stanford CA 1988. 
Jeffers R., The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: 1928-1938, ed. T. Hunt, Vol. 2, Stanford CA 1989.
Jeffers R., The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: 1939-1962, ed. T. Hunt, Vol. 3, Stanford CA 1991. 
Jeffers R., The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: 1903-1920, Prose, and Unpublished Writings, ed. T. Hunt, Vol. 4, Stanford CA 2000. 
Jeffers R., The Selected Letters of Robinson Jeffers, ed. A.N. Ridgeway, Baltimore MD 1968.
Jeffers R., The Selected Letters of Robinson Jeffers, 1897-1962, ed. A.N. Ridgeway, Baltimore MD 1968. 
Lao Tzŭ [老子], Tao Te Ching Shih-yi [道德經釋義] (The Exegesis of The Book of the Way and Virtue), ed. Jen Fa-jung [任法融], Hong Kong [香港] 2012. 
Peevey R., Jeffers and the Tao-Te Ching, “Robinson Jeff ers Newsletter” 1979, No. 55(1). Rexroth K., Assays, New York City 1961. 
Selden R., Knife in the Flowers, “Poetry” 1954, Vol. 84, No. 4. 
Yueh-Han Fu-Yin [約翰福音] (Gospel of John), https://www.bible.com/zh-CN/bible/312/JHN.1.csbt (access: 10.12.2017). 
Zhang Dainian, Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy, trans. E. Ryden, Beijing 2002.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.