Value Orientations of Highly Educated Migrants from Serbia

Jelena Dinić

Abstrakt

International migration of the highly educated has always been a characteristic of academia, however, specifi c circumstances in the Balkans in recent years, marked by wars and economic crisis, have additionally contributed to a large outfl ow of highly educated people from Serbia. Th e aim of this study was to identify value systems among the highly educated migrants from Serbia. Living in extremely complex social situations, having to speak two or more languages and being adapted to living in diff erent cultures, diff erent political and social environments might infl uence migrants’ value systems. For this purpose, a questionnaire has been constructed consisting of standardized scales –Value Orientation Scale (Kuzmanović 1995), Postmaterialism Scale (Inglehart 2000), and Social Distance Scale (Bogardus 1933). Our sample consisted of 327 highly educated emigrants who responded to an online survey.
Th e results show that our sample characterizes expressed openness to the world, equality  of genders, secular-rational and self-expression values. On the other hand, lower levels of conformism, religiousness, authoritarianism and social distance are detected. Our assumption is that the results obtained may be a consequence of the migrant lifestyle and in this regard are consistent with the new approach in the study of migration – transnationalism.

Słowa kluczowe: migration, highly educated, value orientations, Serbia
References

Abramson, P. R., Inglehart, R. (1992), Generational Replacement and Value Change in Eight West European Societies, “British Journal of Political Science” Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp.183–228.

Alargić, D. Đ. (2012), Karakteristike pojedinca kao činioci sistema vrednosti pripadnika vojske Srbije, Doctoral dissertation. Beograd: Univerasity of Belgrade.  Law on diaspora and Serbs in the region (2011), Offi cial Gazette RS, no. 88/09.

Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N., Szanton-Blanc, C. (1994). Nations unbound: Transnational projects and the deterritorialized nation-state. New York: Gordon and Breach. 

Berry, J.W. (1997), Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation, “Applied psychology: an international review” Vol. 46 Issue 1, pp. 5–68.

Berry, J.W. (2002), Th e Psychology of Immigration, “Journal of Social Issues” Vol. 57 Issue 3, pp. 615–631.

Berry, J.W. (2005), Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures, “International Journal of Intercultural Relations” Vol. 2, pp. 697–712.

Bešić, M. (2014), Tranzicione traume i promene vrednosnih orijentacija – generacijski pristup, Komparativna empirijska studija vrednosti u zemljama bivše Jugoslavije. Projekat: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu. Beograd: Fakultet političkih nauka.

Bhugra, D. (2004), Migration, distress and cultural identity, “British Medical Bulletin” Vol. 69, pp. 129–141.

Bhugra, D., Becker, M. A. (2005), Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity, “World Psychiatry” (Special article) Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp.18–24.

Bobić, M. (2009), Dijaspora kao ekonomski i socijalni kapital Srbije. “Sociološki pregled” Vol. 43 Issue 3, pp. 361-378.

Bobić, M., Babović, M. (2013), Međunarodne migracije u Srbiji – Stanje i politke. “Sociologija” Vol. 55 Issue 2, pp. 209–228.

Bogardus, E.S. (1933), A Social Distance Scale, “Sociology and Social Research” Vol. 17, pp. 265–271.

Chukwujekwu, C.D., Chukwujekwu C.J., Olose E.O. (2016), Relationship Between Socio-demographic Variables and Social Distance Towards the Mentally Ill, “American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience” Vol. 4 Issue 3, pp. 52–56.

Cvetićanin, N. (2010), Proces konstituisanja političke i društvene elite u srpskom društvu – problem diskontinuiteta i „fl uktuirajućeg legitimiteta“. “Nacionalni interes” Vol. 6 Issue 3, pp. 107–146.

Davis, D., Davenport, C. (1999), Assessing the Validity of the Postmaterialism Index. “American Political Science Review” Vol. 93 Issue 3, pp. 649–664.

De Haas, H. (2005), International Migration, Remittances and Development: Myths and Facts, “Th ird World Quarterly” Vol. 26 Issue 8, pp. 1269–1284.

Dinić, J. (2016), Neki pokušaji sistematizacije teorijskih socio-ekonomskih uzroka migracija u savremenom društvu, “Stanovništvo jugoistočne Srbije: Odliv mozgova – uzroci i posledice po nacionalni razvoj i identitet” (Book of proceedings), Centar za naučna istraživanja, SANU, University of Niš, pp. 27–41.

Dinić, J. (2017), Značaj proučavanja vrednosti i vrednosnih orijentacija migranata, “Godišnjak za sociologiju” Vol. 12 Issue 17, pp. 67–86.

Đorđević, B., Gojkov G.,. Stojanović, A. (2009), Vrednosti potencijalne društvene elite. In: Gojkov, G. (ed.), Daroviti i društvena elita. Vršac: Visoka škola strukovnih studija za obrazovanje vaspitača „Mihailo Palov“.

Faist, T. (2010), Diaspora and transnationalism: What kind of dance partners? In: Baubock, R., Faist, T. (eds.) Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Th eories and Methods. Amsterdam: IMISCOE Research, Amsterdam University Press.

Flanagan, S.C., Lee, A.R. (2003), Th e New Politics, Culture Wars, and the Authoritarian-Libertarian Value Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies, “Comparative Political Studies” Vol. 36, pp. 235–70.

Gavrilović, D., Stjepanović, Zaharijevski, D. (2012), Tradicionalne i moderne vrednosti u tranzicionoj Srbiji. “Teme” Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp. 1087–1102. 

Glick Schiller, N. (2010), A global perspective on transnational migration: Th eorising migration without methodological nationalism. In: Baubock, R., Faist, T. (eds.) Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Th eories and Methods. Amsterdam: IMISCOE Research, Amsterdam University Press.

Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L., Szanton Blanc, C. (1995), From Immigrant to Transmigrant: Th eorizing Transnational Migration, “Anthropological quarterly” Vol. 68 Issue 1, pp. 48–63.

Golubović, Z., Kuzmanović, B., Vasović M. (1995), Društveni karakter i društvene promene u svetlu nacionalnih sukoba. Beograd: Filip Višnjić i Institut za fi lozofi ju i društvenu teoriju.

Grečić, V. (2002), Th e Role of Migrant Professionals in the Process of Transition in Yugoslavia, “International problems” Vol. 54 Issue 3.

Grečić, V. (2009), Bolje korišćenje talenta kao faktor povećanja konkurentnosti. In: Ekonomski- fi nansijski odnosi Srbije sa inostranstvom: Nužnost nove strategije. Beograd: Naučno društvo ekonomista, Akademija ekonomskih nauka, Ekonomski fakultet.

Greenstein, F. I. (1987), Personality and Politics: Problems of Evidence, Inference and Conceptualization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Haller, W., Landolt, P. (2005), Th e transnational dimensions of identity formation: adult children of immigrants in Miami. “Ethnic and Racial Studies” Vol. 2 Issue 6, pp. 182–214.

Haneš, O. (2012), Sociodemografske karakteristike, socijalne distance i stereotipi kod studenata u Banjaluci, “Primenjena psihologija” Vol. 2012/1, pp. 59–79.

Hansen, O., Tol, R. (2003), A refi ned Inglehart index of materialism and postmaterialism, “American Political Science Review” Vol. 73, 155–169.

Inglehart, R. (1971), Th e Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-industrial Societies, “American Political Science Review” Vol. 65 Issue 4, pp. 991–1017.

Inglehart, R., Abramson P. R. (1999), Measuring Postmaterialism, “Th e American Political Science Review” Vol. 93 Issue 3, pp. 665–677.

Inglehart, R., Baker, W. E. (2000), Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values, “American Sociological Review” Vol. 65 Issue 1, pp. 19–51.

Inglehart, R., Flanagan, S. C. (1987), Value change in Industrial Societies, “Th e American Political Science Review” Vol. 81 Issue 4, pp. 1289–1319.

Inglehart, R., Welzel, C. (2005) Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISCED – International Standard Classifi cation

of Education (2011), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/fi les/documents/international-standard-classifi cation-of-education-isced-2011-en.pdf [Accessed: 16.02.2016].

Jovkovska, A., Barakoska, A. (2014), Th e role of education in the formation of values and value orientations among adolescents. “International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education” Vol. 2 Issue 2, pp. 21–28.

Kivisto, P. (2001), Th eorizing Transnational Migration: A Critical Review of Current Eff orts, “Ethnic and Racial Studies” Vol. 24 Issue 4, pp. 549–577.

Kurekova, L. (2011), Th eories of migration: Conceptual review and empirical testing in the context of the EU East-West fl ows. Interdisciplinary conference on Migration. Economic Change, Social Challenge. April 6–9, 2011, University College London, https://cream.conference-services.net/resources/952/2371/pdf/MECSC2011_0139_paper.pdf [Accessed: 22.07.2017].

Kuzmanović, B. (1995), Uvodna razmatranja za istraživanje promena vrednosnih orijentacija mladih u Srbiji, “Psihološka istraživanja” Vol. 7, pp. 9–15.

Kuzmanović, B., Petrović N. (2007), Vrednosni ciljevi kao činioci političkih stavova i mnenja mladih. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet. L

Lazić, M. (2000), Rekapitulacija. In: Lazić, M. (ed.) Račji hod: Srbija u transformacijskim procesima. Beograd: Filip Višnjić

Levitt, P. (2004) Transnational Migrants: When “Home” Means More Th an One Country. “Migration Policy Institute Online Journal”, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/transnational-migrants-when-home-means-more-one-country [Accessed: 05.02.2017].

Maksić, S., Pavlović, Z. (2012), Vrednosni profi l društvene elite u Srbiji. In: Grozdanka, G., Stojanović, A. (eds.) Darovitost i moralnost. Visoka škola strukovnih studija za obrazovanje vaspitača „Mihailo Palov“, Universitatea de Vest „Aurel Vlaicu“, Univerzitet „Sv. Kliment Ohridski“ and REVIVIS.

Maldini, P. (2006), Demokratizacija i vrijednosne orijentacije u hrvatskom društvu. “Anali hrvatskog politiloškog društva” Vol. 2 Issue 1, pp 81–103.

Mamattah, S. (2006), Migration and Transnationalism: the Complete Picture? A Case Study of Russians Living in Scotland. “eSharp” Vol. 6 Issue 2, pp. 1–22.

Massey, D. S., Sanchez, M. (2004), Transnational Identity and Behaviour: An Ethnographic Comparison of First and Second Generation Latino Immigrants. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. 2009-05-26, San Francisco, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p110907_index.html [Accessed: 14.05.2017].

Mitrović, Lj. (2010), Nova buržoazija i njena elita u društvu perifernog kapitalizma. “Nacionalni interes” Vol. 6 Issue 3, pp. 249–270.

Nikitović, V. (2011), Može li izbeglička populacija u Srbiji značajno uticati na njenu demografsku budućnost? In: Penev, G.(ed.) Migracije, krize i ratni sukobi na Balkanu s kraja 20. veka. Beograd: Društvo demografa Srbije, DémoBalk.

Norris, P., Inglehart, R. (2009), Rising Tide – Gender Equality and Cultural Change around the World. Cambridge University Press.

Pajvančić-Cizelj, A. (2015), Koncept globalnog grada kao pristup razumevanju savremenih obrazaca globalizacije i urbanizacije, Doctoral dissertation. Novi Sad: University of Novi Sad. 

Pantić, D. (2003), Budućnost tranzicije u Srbiji zavisno od promena vrednosti. In: Promena vrednosti i tranzicija u Srbiji: pogled u budućnost – okrugli sto. Beograd: Fridrih Ebert Stift ung, Institut društvenih nauka.

Pavlov, T., (2009), Migracioni potencijal Srbije. Beograd: Grupa 484.

Pavlov, T., Predojević Despić, J., Milutinović, S. (2013), Transnational entrepreneurship: Experiences of migrant-returnees to Serbia, “Sociologija” Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 261–282.

Pavlović, Z. (2009), Is there a sociodemographic model of acceptance of postmaterialist values? Th e case of Serbia “Sociologija” Vol. 51 Issue 2, pp. 177–188.

Pešić, J. (2016), Vrednosne orijentacije u post-socijalističkim društvima Srbije i Hrvatske. Doctoral dissertation. Belgrade: University of Belgrade.

Portes A. (1997), Immigration theory for a new century: some problems and opportunities, “International Migration Review” Vol. 31 issue 4, pp. 799–825.

Predojević-Despić, J., (2009), Migrantske mreže – nezaobilazna perspektiva u proučavanju savremenih međunarodnih migracija, “Sociološki pregled” Vol. 43 Issue 2, pp. 209–229.

Rimac, I. (1997), O nekim aspektima valjanosti postmaterijalističkog koncepta društvenih vrijednosti. “Društvena istraživanja” Vol. 6 Issue 32, pp. 677–694.

Robinson, W. (1998), Beyond Nation-State Paradigms: Globalization, Sociology, and the Challenge of Transnational Studies, “Sociological Forum” Vol. 13 Issue 4, pp. 561–594.

Rokeach, M. (1968), A Th eory of Organization and Change Within Value‐Attitude Systems. “Journal of Social Issues” Vol. 24 Issue 1, pp. 13–33.

Rot, N., Havelka N. (1973), Nacionalna vezanost i vrednosti kod srednjoškolske omladine. Beograd: Institut za psihologiju i IDN.

Rudnev M. (2014), Value Adaptation Among Intra-European Migrants: Role of Country of Birth and Country of Residence, “Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology” Vol. 47 Issue 10, pp. 1–17.

Selimović, A. (2014), Tipološki pristup dimenzijama ideološke orijentacije. Doctoral dissertation. Novi Sad: Univerzitey of Novi Sad.

Stanković, V. (2010), Društvena elita u Srbiji – preobražaj i prohodnost u poslednjih dvadeset godina. “Nacionalni interes” Vol. 6 Issue 3, pp. 469–490.

Turjačanin, V. (1999), Etnička distanca kod mladih u Republici Srpskoj, “Empirijska istraživanja u psihologiji 5” (Book of apstracts) Beograd: Filozofski fakultet – Institut za psihologiju.

Turjačanin, V. (2004), Etnički stereotipi mladih bošnjačke i srpske nacionalnosti u BiH. Banja Luka: Filozofski fakultet.

Turjačanin, V. (2005). Nacionalni stavovi mladih bošnjačke i srpske nacionalnosti u BiH. Banja Luka: Filozofski fakultet.

Turjačanin, V. (2007), Psihosocijalni prostor i etnički odnosi mladih. Banja Luka: Filozofski fakultet. Vertovec, S. (2001), Transnationalism and Identity, “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies” Vol. 27 Issue 4, pp. 573–582.

Waldinger, R. (2008), Between “Here” and “Th ere”: Immigrant Cross-Border Activities and Loyalties, “International Migration Review – IMR” Vol. 42 Issue 1, pp. 3–29.

Waldinger, R. (2013), Immigrant transnationalism, “Current Sociology” Vol. 61 Issue 5–6, pp. 756–777.

Williams, N. E., Th ornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. C. (2013), Migrant Values and Beliefs: How Are Th ey Diff erent and How Do Th ey Change? “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies” Vol. 40 Issue 5, pp. 796–813.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.