The Buddha as I: Selfhood and Identity in Śrīmālādevī-siṃhanāda-sūtra

Jarosław Zapart

Abstrakt

This article undertakes the issue of the Mahāyāna Buddhist concept of tathāgatagarbha, seen as a form of selfhood. Its task lies in outlining the methods employed to disclose tathāgatagarbha as a “true” and “original” – but also utterly Buddhist – form of self. In the first part of the article I demonstrate the stance of sūtras from the Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra group, in which tathāgatagarbha is bluntly termed ātman, and which posit that all ideas of selfhood are derivatives of the notion of tathāgatagarbha. In the second part, where the Śrīmālādevī-sūtra is taken under consideration, I introduce an interpretative strategy that shows how this scripture establishes tathāgatagarbha as an enduring self. This is done mainly by assigning the tathāgatagarbha a function of sustaining the diachronic coherence of sentient beings in saṃsāra. Consequently, tathāgatagarbha can be viewed as a “prototype” for the idea of “base consciousness” (ālayavijñāna). The final part of the article is built around the question of why Śrīmālādevī-sūtra warns against ascribing the label ātman to tathāgatagarbha.

Słowa kluczowe: buddyzm, mahajana, jaźń, natura buddy, ātman, tathāgatagarbha, Mahāparinirvāṇa- mahāsūtra, Śrīmālādevī-sūtra
References

A Treasury of Mahāyāna SūtrasSelections from the Mahāratnakūṭa SūtraG.C.CChang (ed.), University Park & London 1983.

Barber A.W., Two Mahāyāna Developments along the Krishna River [in:] Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of AndhraSPadmaA.WBarber (eds.), New York 2008pp151–167.

Bodhi B., The Connected Discourses of the BuddhaA New Translation of the Saṃyutta Nikāya, vol12Boston 2000.

Hodge S., On the Eschatology of the Mahāparinirvaṇa-Sūtra and Related MattersLecture held at University of LondonSOAS2006http://www.nirvanasutra.net/historicalbackground2.htm [accessed16 January 2017].

Hodge S., The Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvaṇa-SūtraThe Text and Its TransmissionCorrected and revised paper presented at the Second International Workshop on the Mahāparinirvaṇa-sūtraUniversity of Munich2012http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/pdf/publikationen/The_Textual_Transmission_of_the_MPNS.pdf [accessed16 January 2017].

Jones C.V., BeingsNon-Beingsand BuddhasContrasting Notions of Tathāgatagarbha in the Ānunatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivarta and *Mahābherī Sūtra, “Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies” 2016vol10pp53–84.

Jones C.V., The Term Ātman in Mahāyāna Tathāgatagarbha Thoughtunpublished paper presented at the 17th Congress of the International Association of Buddhist StudiesUniversity of ViennaVienna 2014.

Kuan Tse-fuMindfulness in Early BuddhismLondon & New York 2008.

Matsuda K., Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanādanirdeśa [in:] Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collectionvol1: Buddhist ManuscriptsJBraarvig et al. (eds.), Oslo 2000pp65–76.

Paul D., The Concept of Tathāgatagarbha in the Śrīmālādevī Sūtra (Sheng-man Ching), “Journal of the American Oriental Society” 1979vol99no2pp191–203.

Paul D., The Sūtra of Queen Śrimālā of the Lions Roar [in:] DPaulJ.RMcRaeThe Sūtra of Queen Śrimālā of the Lions Roar & The Vimalakīrti SūtraBerkeley 2004.

Radich M., Tathāgatagarbha Sūtras [in:] Brills Encyclopedia of Buddhismvol1Literature and LanguagesJSilk et al. (eds.), Leiden 2015pp261–273.

Radich M., The Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra and the Emergence of Tathāgatagarbha DoctrineHamburg 2015.

Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra, J.HJohnston (ed.), The Bihar Research SocietyPatna 1950.

Sasaki S., The Mahāparinirvaṇa Sūtra and the Origins of Mahāyāna Buddhism, “Japanese Journal of Religious Studies” 1999vol26no12pp189–197.

Silk J.A., Buddhist Cosmic UnityAn EditionTranslation and Study of the AnūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivartaHamburg 2015.

Suzuki T., The Buddhology in the Mahābherīsūtra Inherited from the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka, “Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies” 2002vol50no2pp1017–1013.

Suzuki T., The Recompilation of the Mahāparinirvaṇasūtra under the Influence of the Mahāme­ghasūtra, “Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies” 2001vol49no2pp1007–1003.

Takasaki J., A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra)Being a Treatise on the Tathā­gatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna BuddhismRome 1966.

Takasaki J., Nyoraizō shisō no keiseiIndo daijō Bukkyō shisō kenkyūTokyo 1975.

Takasaki J., The Tathāgatagarbha Theory ReconsideredReflections on Some Recent Issues in Japanese Buddhist Studies, “Japanese Journal of Religious Studies” 2000vol27no12pp73–83.

Waldron W.S., The Buddhist UnconsciousThe Ālaya-vijñāna in the Context of Indian Buddhist ThoughtLondon 2003.

Walshe M., The Long Discourses of the BuddhaA Translation of the Dīgha NikāyaBoston 1995.

Wayman A., The Mahāsāṃghika and the Tathāgatagarbha, “Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies” 1978vol1no1pp35–50.

Wayman A., Wayman H., The Lions Roar of Queen ŚrīmālāA Buddhist Scripture on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory, Delhi 1990.

Zimmermann M., A Buddha WithinThe TathāgatagarbhasūtraThe Earliest Exposition of the Buddha-Nature Teaching in IndiaTokyo 2002.

Zimmermann M., The Process of Awakening in Early Texts on Buddha-Nature in India [in:] A Distant MirrorArticulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese BuddhismLChen-kuoMRadich (eds.), Hamburg 2014pp513–528.

Kwartalnik "Studia Religiologica" ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w Internecie.