Palestinian Experiences of Shaping the Relationship between National Politics and Islamic Religious Tradition

Magdalena Pycińska

Abstrakt

The aim of the article is to analyse the relations between the discursive Islamic tradition and the national policy implemented in various forms by the Palestinians. I will use in this analysis the notion of the Islamic discursive tradition of Talal Asad, which emphasizes the importance of the relationship between power and knowledge. I will show how the Palestinian nationalist movement influenced the perception of the role and significance of religious tradition, and how it is experienced and practiced in different ways. Works by John O. Voll, Daniel M. Varisco, Dale F. Eickelman, James P. Piscatori and Armand Salvatore show how the current understanding of the relationship between Islam and politics is dependent on Western, top-down assumptions and political projects, and how these have distorted understanding of the processes taking place in the so-called Muslim world. My aim is to go beyond these erroneous assumptions and to reinterpret the Palestinian experience of shaping the relationship between religion and politics.

Słowa kluczowe: Hamas, Fatah, islam polityczny, nacjonalizm, islamska tradycja dyskursywna, religia, sekularyzm, orientalizm
References

14 August Rafah ClashesAnalysisImplications, & Recommendations, “AIDA” 2010, www.gaza-nso.org/files/reports/files/10_5_2010_5222.pdf [access: 27.07.2017].

A Document of General Principles and Policies, http://hamas.ps/en/post/678/a-document-of-general-principles-and-policies [access: 3.05.2017].

Abu Amr Z., HamasA Historical and Political Background, “Journal of Palestine Studies” 1993, no. 22 (4), pp. 5–19.

Abu Amr Z., Islamic Fundamentalism in the West Bank and GazaMuslim Brotherhood and Islamic Jihad, Bloomington 1994.

Asad T., Free SpeechBlasphemyand Secular Criticism, [in:] Is Critique SecularBlasphemy, Injuryand Free Speech, T. Asad (ed.), Berkeley 2009, pp. 20–57.

Asad T., Genealogies of ReligionDiscipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam, Baltimore 1993.

Asad T., The Idea of an Anthropology of IslamOccasional papers series, Washington 1986.

Ayyad A., Arab Nationalism and the Palestinians1850–1939, Jerusalem 1999.

Barghouti I., The Islamists in Jordan and the Palestinian Occupied Territories, [in:] The Islamist DilemmaThe Political Role of Islamist Movement in the Contemporary World, L. Guazzone (ed.), Berkshire 1995, pp. 129–160.

Bayat A., What is Post-Islamism?, “ISIM” 2005, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 5.

Brown N.J., The Third Draft Constitution for a Palestinian StateTranslation and Commentary2003, 
www.pcpsr.org/domestic/2003/nbrowne.pdf [access: 27.07.2017].

Calhoun C., Rethinking Secularism, “The Hedgehog Review” 2010, vol. 12 (3), pp. 35–48.

Casanova J., Rethinking SecularizationA Global Comparative Perspective, “The Hedgehog Review” 2006, vol. 8, pp. 7–22.

Casanova J., The SecularSecularizationsSecularisms, [in:] Rethinking SecularismC. Calhoun (ed.)New York 2011, pp. 54–74.

Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamasof Palestine, “Journal of Palestine Studies” 1993, no. 4, pp. 122–134.

Crone P., Gods RuleGovernment and Islam, Edinburgh 2004.

Dawn C.E., The Origins of Arab Nationalism, [in:] The Origins of Arab Nationalism, R. Khalidi, M. Muslih (eds.), New York 1991, pp. 3–30.

Emmerson D.K., Inclusive IslamismThe Utility of Diversity, [in:] IslamismContested Persprectives on Political
Islam, R.C. Martin, A. Barzegar (eds.), Stanford 2010, pp. 17–32.

Gaes R., Interview with Mousa Abu Marzook, “Middle East Policy” 1 May 1997, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Interview+with+Mousa+Abu+Marzook.-a019496510 [access: 27.07.2017].

Gerber H., Remembering and Imagining Palestine, New York 2008.

Gunning J., Hamas in PoliticsDemocracyReligionViolence, New York 2009.

Haj S., Reordering Islamic OrthodoxyMuhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, “Muslim World” 2002, no. 92, pp. 333–370.

Hamas Bans Women from Smoking Water Pipes in Gaza, “Haaretz” (18.07.2010), www.haaretz.com/news/international/hamas-bans-women-from-smoking-water-pipes-in-gaza-1.302631 [access: 10.02.2019].

Hamas in 2017The document in full “http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/hamas-charter-1637794876 [access: 27.07.2017].

Hammami R., From Modesty to CollaborationHamasthe Womens Movementand the National Identity 
in the Intifada, [in:] Political IslamEssays from the Middle East Report, J. Beinin, J. Stock (eds.),
London 1997, pp. 194–210.

Hashemi N., Islam and Democracy, [in:] The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics, J.L. Esposito, Emad El-Din Shahin (eds.), New York 2013, pp. 68–88.

Hassassian M., PalestineFactionalism in the National Movement, Jerusalem 1990.

Hroub Kh., Hamas, London 2006.

Hroub Kh., HamasPolitical Though and Practice, Washington 2000.

Hroub Kh., A New Hamas” through Its New Documents, “Journal of Palestine Studies” 2006, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 6–27.

Hroub Kh., Salafi Formations in Palestine and the Limits of a De-Palestinised Milieu, “Holy Land Studies” 2008, no. 7 (2), pp. 157–181.

Israeli R., From Oslo to BethlehemArafats Islamic Message, “Journal of Church and State” 2001, no. 43 (3), pp. 423–445.

Jamsheer H.A., Historia powstania islamu jako doktryny społeczno-politycznej, Warszawa 2009.

Kayyali A.W., PalestineA Modern History, London 1973.

Kimmerling B., Migdal J.S., The Palestinian PeopleA History, Cambridge 2003.

Klein M., Competing BrothersThe Web of Hamas-PLO Relations, “Terrorism and Political Violence” 1996, no. 8 (2), pp. 111–132.

Lybarger L.D., Identity and Religion in PalestineThe Struggle Between Islamism and Secularism in the 
Occupied Territories, Princeton 2007.

Martin R.C., Barzegar A., IslamismContested Perspectives on Political Islam, Stanford 2010.

Matthews W.C., Confronting an EmpireConstructing a NationArab Nationalists and Popular Politics in
 Mandate Palestine, London 2006.

Milton-Edwards B., Islamic Politics in Palestine, London 1996.

Milton-Edwards B., Crooke A., Elusive IngredientHamas and the Peace Process, “Journal of Palestine Studies” 2004, no. 33 (4), 39–52.

Public Outcry Forces Hamas to Rescind Ban on ‘Sexual’ Folk Tale Book, http://www.haaretz.com/news/public-outcry-forces-hamas-to-rescind-ban-on-sexual-folk-tale-book-1.215169 [access: 2.10.2019].

Qannan I., New Gaza Salafist faction numbers 11,000 (18.04.2010), http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=277513 [access: 27.07.2017].

Radical Islam in Gaza, “Crisis Group Middle East Report” 2011, no. 104.

Robinson G.E., Building a Palestinian StateThe Incomplete Revolution, Bloomington 1997.

Rowlan R.C., Frank D.A., Shared LandConflicting identityTrajectories of Israeli and Palestinian Symbol Use, East Lansing 2002.

Sayigh Y., “We Serve the People Hamas Policing in Gaza, Crown Center for Middle East Studies, Crown Paper no. 5, 2011.

Sherman A.J., Islamic ReformBetween Islamic Law and the Nation-State, [in:] The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics, J.L. Esposito, Emad El-Din Shahin (eds.), New York 2013.

Tamimi A., HamasA History from Within, New York 2007.

Tylor Ch., A Secular Age, Cambridge 2007.

Varisco D.M., Inventing IslamismThe Violence of Rhetoric, [in:] IslamismContested Perspectives on Political Islam, R.C. Martin, A. Barzegar (eds.), Stanford 2010.

Voll J.O., Political Islam and the State, [in:] The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics, E. Shahin (ed.), New York 2016.

Wagemakers J., Legitimizing PragmatismHamas’ Framing Efforts from Militancy to Moderation and Back?,
 “Terrorism and Political Violence” 2010, no. 22 (3), pp. 357–377.

Yousef A., HamasIslam and Women (12.12.2010), http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=341510 [access: 27.07.2017].

Yousef A., The Hamas CharterVisionfact and fiction (11.01.2011), http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=353587 [access: 21.08.2018].

Zaman M.Q., Consensus and Religious Authority in Modern IslamThe Discourses of the Ulama, [in:] Islam and ModernityKey Issues and Debates, M. Masud, A. Salvatore (eds.), Edinburgh 2009.

Kwartalnik "Studia Religiologica" ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w Internecie.