Public Television in Poland (TVP) and Journalists – A Technological Challenge

Agnieszka Węglińska

Abstrakt

This paper addresses the place of Poland’s public television network, Telewizja Polska (TVP) within the country’s media system. The role of journalists is an important element of public media. In an author view Poland’s public media as part of a system of polarised pluralism, as described in Daniel Hallin and Paolo Mancini’s classification. The main aspect of this research is that of TVP’s transformation in its approach to technology. Journalists who started working in the 1990s have different attitudes from younger staff to the network’s public objectives. They are usually less competent in new media and less concerned about technological convergence and social media. The research involved unstructured interviews with TVP journalists.

Słowa kluczowe: public service media, TVP, journalism, social media, politicisation, political affiliations
References

Studies

Aalberg T., Aelst P. van, Curran J., Media Systems and the Political Information Environment: A Cross-National Comparison, “Media, Culture and Society” 2010, no. 15(3).

Benson R., Blach-Orsten M., Powers M., Willig I., Zambrano S.V., Media Systems Online and Off: Comparing the Form of News in the United States, Denmark, and France, Journal of Communication” 2012, no. 62(1).

Büchel F., Humprecht E., Castro-Herrero L., Engesser S., Brüggemann M., Building Empirical Typologies with QCA, The International Journal of Press/Politics” 2016, no. 21(2).

Brüggemann M., Engesser S., Büchel F., Humprecht E., Castro L., Hallin and Mancini Revisited: Four Empirical Types of Western Media Systems, Journal of Communication 2014, no. 64(6). DOI:10.1111/jcom.12127.

Castro Herrero L., Humprecht E., Engesser S., Brüggemann M., Büchel F., Rethinking Hallin and Mancini Beyond the West: An Analysis of Media Systems in Central and Eastern Europe, “International Journal of Communication” 2017, no. 11.

Chadwick P., Prologue, [in:] G. Ferrell Lowe, F. Martin (eds.), The Value of Public Service Media, Nordicom, Göteborg2013.

Chruściak R., Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji w systemie politycznym i konstytucyjnym [National Broadcasting Council in Political and Constitutional System], Dom Wydawniczy [Publishing House] Elipsa, Warszawa 2007.

Creswell J.W., Projektowanie badań naukowych. Metody jakościowe, ilościowe i mieszane [Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches], transl. J. Gilewicz, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellskiego [Jagiellonian University Press], Kraków 2013.

Dobek-Ostrowska B., Italianization (or Mediterraneanization) of the Polish Media System, [in:] D.C. Hallin, P. Mancini (eds.), Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012.

Dobek-Ostrowska B., 25 Years after Communism: Four Models of Media and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe, [in:] B. Dobek-Ostrowska, M. owacki (eds.), Democracy and Media in Central and Eastern Europe 25 Years, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2015. DOI:10.3726/978-3-653-04452-2.

Dobek-Ostrowska B., owacki M. (eds.), Introduction: Central European Media between Politicization and Commercialization, [in:] B. Dobek-Ostrowska, M. owacki (eds.), Comparing Media Systems in Central Europe: Between Commercialization and Politicization, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroawskiego [Wroaw University Press], Wroaw 2008.

Dobek-Ostrowska B., Barczyszyn P., Michel A., Journalism in Change: Professionalism and Journalistic Culture in Poland, Studia Medioznawcze” [Media Studies] 2013, no. 1(52).

Esser F., Vreese C.H. de, Strömbäck J., et al., Political Information Opportunities in Europe, The International Journal of Press/Politics” 2012, no. 17(3).

Gillmore D., We the Media, http://www.authorama.com/we-the-media-1.html (access: 16.08.2018).

owacki M., Ways of Researching the Public Reception of the Program Offer of Public Media in European Countries: Analysis for NBC, 16.05.2016, http://www.krrit.gov.pl/Data/Files/_public/Portals/0/komunikaty/spoleczny-odbior-mediow-publiczn/raport.docx (access: 28.02.2017).

Grochowski R., Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji jako konstytucyjny organ ochrony i kontroli prawa [National Broadcasting Council as a Constitutional Regulator], [in:] M. Barska, et al. (eds.), Polityka medialna w Polsce. Bilans dwudziestolecia obowiązywania Ustawy o Radiofonii i Telewizji [Media and Politics in Poland], Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM [Faculty of Political Science and Journalism Adam Mickiewicz University Publis- hing], Poznań 2016.

Hallin D.C., Mancini P., Comparing Media Systems: Between Easter and Western Europe, [in:] P. Gross, K. Jakubowicz (eds.), Media Transformation in the Post-communists World: Eastern Europe Tortured Path to Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013.

Hallin D.C., Mancini P., Systemy medialne. Trzy modele mediów i polityki w ujęciu porównawczym, transl. M. Lorek, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellskiego [Jagiellonian University Press], Kraków 2007.

Harrison T.M., Barthel B., Wielding New Media in Web 2.0: Exploring the History of Engagement with the Collaborative Construction of Media Products, New Media & Society” 2009, no. 11.

Horowitz M.A., Public Service Media and Challenge of Crossing Borders: Assessing New Models, Studia Medioznawcze” [Media Studies] 2015, no. 6(12).

Hysa B., Zarządzanie różnorodnością pokoleniową, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej. Organizacja i Zarządzanie” 2016, no. 97.

Ibarra K.A., Nowak E., Kuhn R., Introduction: The Relevance of Public Service Media in Europe, [in:] K.A. Ibarra, E. Nowak, R. Kuhn (eds.), Public Service Media in Europe: A Comparative Approach, Routledge, London 2015.

Jakubowicz K., Media publiczne. Początek końca czy nowy początek [Public Media: The Beginning of the End or a New Beginning], Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne [Academic and Professional Publishers], Warszawa 2007.

Jakubowicz K., Bringing Public Service Broadcasting to Account, [in:] G.F. Lowe, T. Hujanen (eds.), Broadcasting and Convergence: New Articulations of the Public Service Remit, Nordicom, Göteborg 2003.

Jenkins H., Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University Press, New York 2007.

Jenkins H., Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture, New York University Press, New York 2006.

Klimkiewicz B., Between Autonomy and Dependency: Funding, Mechanisms of Public Service Media in Selected European Countries, [in:] K.A. Ibarra, E. Nowak, R. Kuhn (eds.), Public Service Media in Europe: A Comparative Approach, Routledge, London 2015.

Kreft J., Luka niedoboru a media publiczne – szanse i zagrożenia, Zarządzanie Mediami” [Media Management] 2016, no. 4(3), pp. 181–191. DOI:10.4467/23540214ZM.16.009.6296.

Kwak H., Lee Ch., Park H., Moon S., What Is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media, http://an.kaist.ac.kr/traces/WWW2010.html (access: 6.08.2017).

Lowe G.F., Steemers J., Regaining the Initiative for Public Service Media, [in:] G.F. Lowe, J. Steemers (eds.), Regaining the Initiative for Public Service Media, Nordicom, Göteborg 2012.

Łokić P., Activity of Polish Journalists on Twitter, e-Politikon” 2014, no. 12.

Merklejn I., Węglińska A., Media Landscape of Poland from a Distance, Journal of Information Studies” 2014, no. 86.

Mocek S., Dziennikarze po komunizmie. Elita mediów w świetle badań specznych [Journalism after Communism: The Research of Media Elits], Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar [Scholar Scientific Publisher], Collegium Civitas Press, Warszawa 2006.

Nissen Ch.S., Digitization and Public Service Media: What Service to Which Public, [in:] K.A. Ibarra, E. Nowak, R. Kuhn (eds.), Public Service Media in Europe: A Comparative Approach, Routledge, London 2015.

Peruško Z., Vozab D., Čuvalo A., Audience as a Source of Agency in Media Systems: Post-socialist Europe in a Comparative Perspective, “Mediální Studia” 2013, no. 2.

Piontek D., Komunikowanie polityczne i kultura popularna. Tabloidyzacja informacji o polityce, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza [Scientific Publisher of Faculty of Political Sciences and Journalism at the University of Adam Mickiewicz], Poznań 2011.

Pokorna-Ignatowicz K., Polish Public Television as Political Loot, Studia Medioznawcze” [Media Studies] 2010, no. 2(41).

Price M.E., Raboy M., Public Service Broadcasting in Transition: A Documentary Reader, Kluwer Law International, The Hague 2003.

Raats T., Donders K., From Centralized to Distributed Public Service Media, “International Journal of Digital Television” 2015, no. 6.

Różycka M., Media publiczne państwo, speczeństwo, rynek, Zarządzanie Mediami [Media Management] 2013, no. 1(1), pp. 11–32. DOI:10.4467/23540214ZM.13.003.2294.

Scannel P., Public Service Broadcasting: The History of Concept, [in:] A. Goodwin, G. Whannel (eds.), Understanding Television, Routledge, London 1990.

Skrzypczak J., Spór o media publiczne w Polsce w świetle standardów europejskich, Środkowo-europejskie Studia Polityczne” 2015, no. 4.

Toczko K., Sposoby komunikacji polskiej i brytyjskiej telewizji publicznej na Facebooku [Polish and British Television on Facebook], Studia Medioznawcze [Media Studies] 2014, no. 4(59).

Tracey M., Decline and Fall of Public Service Broadcasting, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1998.

Van den Bulck H., Public Service Television and National Identity as a Project of Modernity: The Example of Flemish Television, “Media, Culture and Society” 2001, no. 23(1).

Van den Bulck H., Donders K., Lowe G.F., Public Service Media in the Networked Society: What Society? What Network? What Role?, [in:] G.F. Lowe, H. Van den Bulck, K. Donders (eds.), Public Service Media in the Networked Society, Nordicom, Göteborg 2018.

Vision 2020, https://www.ebu.ch/vision2020-report-now-available (access: 1.02.2018).

Voltmer K., The Media in Transitional Democracies, Polity Press, Cambridge 2013.

Wyka A., Berlusconization of the Mass Media in East Central Europe: The New Danger of Italianization?, http://www.kakanien.ac.at/beitr/emerg/AWyka1.pdf (access: 11.03.2017).

Legal acts

Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 2 kwietnia 1997 r., Dz.U. 1997, nr 78, poz. 483, t.j.: http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19970780483/U/D19970483Lj. pdf (access: 28.11.2019).

Ustawa z dnia 29 grudnia 1992 r. o radiofonii i telewizji, Dz.U. 1993, nr 7, poz. 34, t.j.: http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19930070034/U/D19930034Lj.pdf (access: 28.08.2017).

Wersją pierwotną jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie