Deepfake – nowy wymiar internetowej manipulacji

Ilona Dąbrowska

Abstrakt

Deepfake - a new dimension of online lies

The subject of consideration is the problem of falsification of audiovisual materials, referred to as deepfake. In this publication, I analyze literature on the problem, as well as draw the genesis and technological aspects of deepfake movies. Reflections on the issue discussed have been enriched with specific examples of films that have been published on the Internet to date. The article is an attempt to answer the question about the real threats associated with the existence of deepfakes and the possibilities of protection against them. An important aspect is the question about the security of every modern Internet user (in the context of data posted on social media), as well as the security of entire societies and nations. The publication highlights the threats associated with the spread of fake news and deepfakes in the online sphere in the context of off-line security

Słowa kluczowe: deepfake, Internet, movies, recordings, social media, forgery, manipulation
References

Bansal A., Garg Ch., Pakhare A., Gupta S., Selfies: A boon or bane?, „Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care” 2018, vol. 7(4). Raport dostępny pod adresem: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131996/ (dostęp: 2.11.2019).

Chivers T., What do we do about deepfake video?, „The Guardian”, 23.06.2019, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jun/23/what-do-we-do-about-deepfake-video-ai-facebook (dostęp: 2.11.2019).

Drzazga M., Cała prawda o fake news, czyli jak rozpoznać fałszywe wiadomości?, https://www.legalniewsieci.pl/aktualnosci/cala-prawda-o-fake-news-czyli-jak-rozpoznacfalszywe--wiadomości (dostęp: 29.12.2019).

Eadicicco L., There’s a terrifying trend on the internet that could be used to ruin your reputation, and no one knows how to stop it, „Business Insider”, 10.07.2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/dangerous-deepfake-technology-spreading-cannot-be-stopped-2019-7?IR=T
(dostęp: 30.10.2019).

Gillin J., Fact-checking fake news reveals how hard it is to kill pervasive ‘nasty weed’ online, PolitiFact, 27.01.2017, http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/article/2017/jan/27/factchecking-fake-news-reveals-how-hard-it-kill-p/ (dostęp: 29.12.2019).

Hao K., Google has released a giant database of deepfakes to help fight deepfakes, MIT Technology Review, 25.09.2019, https://www.technologyreview.com/f/614426/google-has-released-a-giant-database-of-deepfakes-to-help-fi ght-deepfakes/ (dostęp: 3.11.2019).

Joplin T., A Military Coup in Gabon Inspired by a Potential Deepfake Video Is Our Political Future, Albawaba News, 8.05.2019, https://www.albawaba.com/news/military-coup-gabon-inspired-potential-deepfake-video-our-political-future-1284760 (dostęp: 29.12.2019).

Kicior B., To fake video doprowadziło do śmierci co najmniej 20 osób, Menway, 21.11.2018, https://menway.interia.pl/meskie-tematy/news-to-fake-video-doprowadzilo-do-smierci-co-najmniej-20-osob,nId,2688001 (dostęp: 2.11.2019).

Lahoti S., Lawmakers introduce new Consumer privacy bill and Malicious Deep Fake Prohibition Act to support consumer privacy and battle deepfakes, Pact, 5.02.2019, https://hub.packtpub.com/lawmakers-introduce-new-consumer-privacy-bill-and-malicious-deep-fake-prohibition-act-to-support-consumer-privacy-and-battle-deepfakes/ (dostęp: 2.11.2019).

Rouse M., Deepfake (deep fake AI), WhatIs.com, https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/deepfake (odczyt 29.10.2019).

Schwartz O., You thought fake news was bad? Deep fakes are where truth goes to die, „The Guardian”, 12.11.2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/nov/12/deep-fakes-fakenews-truth (dostęp: 13.11.2019).

Waterson J., Facebook refuses to delete fake Pelosi video spread by Trump supporters, „The Guardian”, 24.05.2019, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/may/24/facebook-leaves-fake-nancy-pelosi-video-on-site (dostęp: 30.10.2019).

Young N., DeepFake Technology: Complete Guide to Deepfakes, Politics and Social Media, [niezależny wydawca], New York 2019.

Zakharo I., Shysheya A., Burkov E., Lempitsky V., Few-Shot Adversarial Learning of Realistic Neural Talking Head Models, raport dostępny pod adresem: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08233.pdf (dostęp: 3.11.2019).

Wersją pierwotną jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie