Leadership and mental models. Study of school principals’ awareness

Grzegorz Mazurkiewicz

Abstrakt

The main purpose of the proposed paper is to analyze paradigms (theoretical frames) of leadership owned and used by school principals.
The analysis is based on the results of the research conducted for the purpose of defining and describing the school principals’ way of thinking about leadership for education. For the purpose of building framework for research it was assumed that four leadership paradigms might be defined.
Leadership might be understood through classic paradigm of leadership (domination of the significant person or elite group); or transactional paradigm (influence and negotiations); or visionary paradigm (called sometimes charismatic where the most import ant is clear vision); or organic paradigm (existing in multicultural and diverse world where leadership is flexible and leaders change dependently on a situation)
Three methods have been used: interview with 99 principals of schools (of different type), observation in the same number of schools and analyses of the blogs (written on-line by school principals).
It is common to ignore the mental models (or paradigms) used by people what brings certain outcomes for every initiative. It is necessary for policy making, change projects or developmental initiatives to recognize and take under consideration the diversity of possible perspectives (mental models) owned by those who are working in the concerned area, in this case head teachers.
Civilization changes influence context and demands towards schools. Those challenges impact the modernization of schools. One of the common expectation towards management are more open - participative mode of the decision making process and the involvement of employees in sharing responsibilities. Unfortunately different initiatives towards inclusion of employees into management and leadership processes bring rather disappointing results because they ignore ideologies and assumptions of people who decide about school functioning.
Analysis of the results of the research should improve the understanding of the school reality by showing strategies and decisions adequate to the state of “educational consciousness”.

Słowa kluczowe: Educational leadership, mental models, change, development
References

Avery, G.C. (2009). Przywództwo w organizacji. Paradygmaty i studia przypadków. Warszawa Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.

Ball, S. (2007). Big Policies/Small World. An introduction to International Perspectives in Education Policy, in: B. Lingard, J. Ozga (eds.), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Education Policy and Politics, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York.

Berger, P.L., Luckmann, T. (2010). Społeczne tworzenie rzeczywistości. Traktat z socjologii wiedzy. Warszawa: PWN.

Biesta, G. (2007). Why “What Works” Won’t Work: Evidence-based Practice and the Democratic Defi cit in Educational Research, “Educational Theory”, no. 57 (1), p. 1−22.

Blanchard, K. (2007). Przywództwo wyższego stopnia. Blanchard o przywództwie i tworzeniu efektywnych organizacji. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Brookfi eld, S. (1995). Becoming a Critically Refl ective Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

De Corte, E. (2010). Historical Development in the Understanding of Learning, in: H. Dumont, D. Istance, F. Benavides (eds.), The Nature of Learning. Using Research To Inspire Practice, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD, Paris.

Delors, J. (1998). Edukacja jest w niej ukryty skarb. Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Oświatowców Polskich, Wydawnictwo UNESCO.

Dempster, N. (2009). What Do We Know About Leadership, in: J. MacBeath, N. Dempster (eds.), Connecting Leadership and Learning. Principles for Practice, Routledge, London and New York.

Dumont, H., Istance, D. (2010). Analyzing and Designing Learning Environments for the 21st Century, in: H. Dumont, D. Istance, F. Benavides (eds.), The Nature of Learning. Using Research To Inspire Practice, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD, Paris.

Education at Glance. OECD Indicators (2010). OECD Publishing.

Fielding, M., Moss, P. (2011). Radical Education and the Common School. A Democratic Alternative. London, New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Fink, D. (2005). Developing Leaders for Their Future Not Our Past, in: M.J. Coles, G. Southworth, Developing Leaders. Creating the Schools of Tomorrow, Open University Press, Berkshire.

Freire, P. (2001). Pedagogy of Freedom. Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage. Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefi eld Publishers, Inc.

Gobillot, E. (2009). Leadershift. Reinventing Leadership For the Age of Mass Collaboration. London and Philadelphia: Kogan Page.

Harber, C. (2004). Schooling as Violence. How Schools Harm Pupils and Societies. London, New York: Routledge Falmer Taylor & Francis Group.

Hargreaves, A., Shirley, D. (2009). Fourth Way. The Inspiring Future for Educational Change. London: Corwin A SAGE Company, Thousand Oaks.

Harvey, M. (2006). Leadership and the Human Condition, in: G.R. Goethals, G.L.J. Sorenson (eds.), The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership, Edgar Elgar, Cheltenham, Northampton.

Hoerr, M. (2005). The Art of School Leadership. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Illeris, K. (2006). Trzy wymiary uczenia się. Poznawcze, emocjonalne, i społeczne ramy współczesnej teorii uczenia się. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Dolnośląskiej Szkoły Wyższej Edukacji TWP we Wrocławiu.

Jordan, A., Carlie, O., Stack, A. (2009). Approaches to Learning. A Guide for Teachers. Glasgow: McGrawHill Open University Press.

Judt, T. (2011). Źle ma się kraj. Wołowiec: Czarne

Kellner, D. (2000). Mulitple Literacies and Critical Pedagogies. New Paradigms, in: P.P. Trifonas (ed.), Revolutionary Pedagogies. Cultural Politics, Instituting Education and the Discourse of Theory. New York, London: RoutledgeFalmer.

MacBeath, J., Swaffi eld, S. (2009). Leadership for Learning, in: J. MacBeath, N. Dempster (eds.), Connecting Leadership and Learning. Principles for Practice, Routledge, London, New York.

Malewski, M. (2006). Wstęp, in: K. Illeris, Trzy wymiary uczenia się. Poznawcze, emocjonalne, i społeczne ramy współczesnej teorii uczenia się, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Dolnośląskiej Szkoły Wyższej Edukacji TWP we Wrocławiu, Wrocław.

Marzano, R., Waters, T., McNulty, B. (2005). School Leadership that Works. From Research to Results. Alexandria: ASCD, Aurora: McREL.

Mazurkiewicz, G. (2011a). Przywództwo edukacyjne. Odpowiedzialne zarządzanie edukacją wobec wyzwań współczesności. Kraków: Wydawnictwo UJ.

Mazurkiewicz, G. (2011b). Przywództwo dla uczenia się. Jak wyjść poza schemat?, in: S.M. Kwiatkowski, J.M. Michalak, I. Nowosad (eds.), Przywództwo edukacyjne w szkole i jej otoczeniu, Difin, Warszawa.

Mazurkiewicz, G., Walczak, B. (2011). Evaluace jako diskurz. Komunikace a/versus kontrola v novem modelu skolni inspekce w Polsku, „Studia Paedagogica”, rocnik 16, cislo 2, Masarykova Univerzita Filozoficka Fakulta.

Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., Barber, M. (2010). How the World’s Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better. London: McKinsey & Company.

Polak, K. (1999). Teorie indywidualne nauczyciela. Geneza, badanie, kształtowanie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo UJ.

Rapley, T. (2010). Analiza konwersacji, dyskursu i dokumentów. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Raport o kapitale intelektualnym Polski (2008). Warszawa: Zespół Doradców Strategicznych Premiera.

Schein, E.H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Senge, P. (2002). Piąta dyscyplina. Teoria i praktyka organizacji uczących się. Kraków: Oficyna Ekonomiczna.

Sułkowski, Ł. (2005). Epistemologia w naukach o zarządzaniu. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.

Williams, B., Hummelbrunner, R. (2011). Systems Concepts in Action. A Practitioner’s Toolkit. Stanford: Stanford Business Books.

Whitty, G. (2001). Vultures and Third Way: Recovering Mannheim’s Legacy for Today, in: J. Demaine (ed.), Sociology of Education Today, Palgrave, New York.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.