Let’s look for leaders – we need them! A survey on the authentic leadership competences among nursing students 

Joanna Gotlib,

Grzegorz Juszczyk,

Ilona Cieślak,

Aleksander Zarzeka,

Lucyna Iwanow,

Mariusz Panczyk

Abstrakt

Background. Deficiencies among nursing staff results in a lower quality of nursing care, thereby threatening patients’ safety. A potential way to deal with the problem of insufficient nursing care is to implement effective leadership. Universities play a key role in creating future leaders who are able to initiate changes in health care systems. As leadership education requires adequate support (including financial aid and mentoring), it is necessary to identify those who would most benefit from additional training by analyzing natural leadership competences. To date, the issue of nursing leadership, especially authentic leadership, in Poland has not been sufficiently described. This study aimed to assess the level of competence in authentic leadership in a group of nursing students in Poland.

Methods. A total of 99 students (93 women and 6 men) from the Nursing Division, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw were recruited, including 58 students in their first year of first cycle (54 women and 4 men) and 41 students in their second year of the masters program (39 women and 2 men). The average age was 26.17 years (min. 24, max. 47, SD: 5.630). Students were assessed using the pen and paper interview (PAPI) method, and an anonymous Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ). The ALQ comprises 16 statements rated using the Likert scale, ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 5, in four dimensions: self-awareness, ethics/morality, balanced processing, and transparency in relationships. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The reliability of the questionnaire measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.781.

Results. Only 24% of students had a high level of leadership competency (16–20 points) in the self-awareness dimension. Students achieved a low score (15 points or below) in the other dimensions (ethics/morality, balanced processing, and transparency in relations).

Conclusion. The overall level of leadership competency among the study group of nursing students in Poland was low. Nursing students with higher levels of authentic leadership competencies should be identified and given additional individual support from their home universities during their studies to provide future leaders for our health care system.

Słowa kluczowe: kompetencje społeczne, programu opieki, studenci, przywództwo , social competences, nursing program, students, leadership
References

1. Preliminary assessment of staff resources of nurses and midwives in Poland until 2020, Main Council of Nurses and Midwives, Warsaw, June 2010; http://ww.izbapiel.org.pl/attachments/article/1782/Wstepna.ocena.zasobow.kadrowych.pdf (accessed: 11.12.2017).

2. Middleton R., Active learning and leadership in an undergraduate curriculum: How effective is it for student learning and transition to practice? “Nurse Educ. Pract.” 2013; 13 (2): 83–88. doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2012.07.012.

3. Waite R., McKinney N.S., Findings from a study of aspiring nursing student leaders, “Nurse Educ. Today” 2015; 35 (12): 1307–1311. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.08.016.

4. Dever K.H., Roman T.C., Smith C.M., Bowllan N.M., Dollinger M.L., Blaine B.E., Comparing professional values and authentic leadership dimensions in baccalaureate nursing students: A longitudinal study, “Journal Nurs Educ.” 2015; 54 (6): 339–342. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20150515-05.

5. Foli K.J., Braswell M., Kirkpatrick J., Lim E., Development of leadership behaviors in undergraduate nursing students: a service-learning approach, “Nurs Educ. Perspect.” 2014; 35 (2): 76–82.

6. Pritchard T.J., Perazzo J.D., Holt J.A., Fishback B.P., McLaughlin M., Bankston K.D., Glazer G., Evaluation of a Summer Bridge: Critical Component of the Leadership 2.0 Program, “Journal Nurs Educ.” 2016; 55 (4): 196–202. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20160316-03.

7. Buckwell-Nutt K., Francis-Shama J., Kellett P., A framework for pre-qualifying nurses to build leadership skills, “Nurs Manag.” 2014; 21 (7): 16–22. doi: 10.7748/nm.21.7.16.e1260.

8. Waite R., McKinney N., Smith-Glasgow M.E., Meloy F.A., The embodiment of authentic leadership, “Journal Prof. Nurs.” 2014; 30 (4): 282–291. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2013.11.004.

9. Program of the XIII congress of Polish nurses, Warsaw, September 15–17, 2016; http://kongres.ptp.na1.pl/i/cms/program-kongresu_do-www.pdf (accessed: 12.12.2017).

10. Program of the debate on the problems of contemporary nursing and midwifery in Poland. March 27, 2017, Warsaw; http://www.mz.gov.pl/system-ochrony-zdrowia/kadramedyczna-i-ksztalcenie/pielegniarki-i-polozne/debata/ (accessed: 11.12.2017).

11. Program of the conference of nursing management “Management of nursing care in medical entities - legal conditions and challenges of practice”. March 23–24, 2017, Warsaw; http://www.ptp.na1.pl/pliki/KonferencjaKK/ProgramKonferencji.pdf (accessed: 11.12.2017).

12. Avolio B.J., Gardner W.L., Walumbwa F.O., Luthan F., May D., Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviours, “The Leadership Quarterly” 2004; 15: 801–823.

13. Avolio B.J., Gardner W.L., Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership, “The Leadership Quarterly” 2005; 16 (3): 315–338.

14. Wong C.A., Cummings G.G., Authentic leadership: a new theory for nursing or back to basics? “Journal Health Organ. Manag.” 2009; 23 (5): 522–538.

15. Avolio B.J., Walumbwa F.O., Weber T.J., Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions, “Annu. Rev. Psychol.” 2009; 60: 421–449.

16. Walumbwa F.O., Avolio B.J., Gardner W.L., Wernsing T.S., Peterson S.J., Authentic leadership: development and validation of a theory-based measure, “Journal Manag.” 2008; 34 (1): 89–126. doi: 10.1177/0149206307308913.

17. Wong C.A., Laschinger H.K.S., Cummings G.G., Authentic leadership and nurses’ voice behaviour and perceptions of care quality, “Journal Nurs. Manag.” 2010; 18 (8): 889–900.

18. Spence Laschinger H.K., Wong C.A., Grau A.L., The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses’ experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: a cross-section study, “Int. J. Nurs. Stud.” 2012; 49 (10): 1266–1276. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.05.012.

19. Opinion of the Bioethics Committee of Medical University of Warsaw; http://komisja-bioetyczna.wum.edu.pl/content/szczeg%C3%B3%C5%82owe-informacje-oraz-wzorydokument%C3%B3w (accessed: 08.02.2017).

20. Kilańska D., Nurses as leaders for long-term care, “Nurs. Top.” 2010; 1: 72–78.

21. Łukasz-Paluch K., Franek G.A., First leaders of nursing associations: Contemporary challenges facing leaders, “Nurs. Top.” 2010; 18 (2): 220–225.

22. Kunecka D., Assessment of the leadership potential of nurses, “Nurs. Top.” 2010; 2: 145–150.

23. Kemerer D., Ćwiekala-Lewis K., Emotional intelligence for nursing leaders, “Pol. Nurs.” 2016; 4 (62): 562–565.

24. Sierpińska L., Review of tools for assessing the leadership on the market healthcare system in Poland, “21st Nurs.” 2010; 3–4 (32–33): 115–119.

25. Sierpińska L., Validation of the Polish version of The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire for the of evaluation purpose of nursing management staff in national hospital wards, “Pol. Merkur. Lekarski” 2013; 35 (207): 159–162.

26. Rath T., StrengthsFinder 2.0, Gallup Institute, 2017.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.