Women in Indian and Pakistani Politics: Reservation Policy and Quotas versus Human Development

Agnieszka Nitza-Makowska


This study compares the measures that serve women’s numerical presence in politics in India and Pakistan. Based on the selected indicators of women’s human development, the paper also outlines the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which these measures operate. Drawing mainly on the primary sources coupled with Indian and Pakistani movies, the paper concludes by exposing the gap between an average woman citizen and a woman politician that exists in both countries regardless of quotas and reservation policy.

Słowa kluczowe: women in politics, quotas in Pakistan, reservation policy in India, women’s human development

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